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34 Cards in this Set

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Autocratic Parenting
At the beginning of the 20th century, children were told what to do and expected to respond accordingly without expressing their opinions regarding parental demands.
Hobbesian perspective
prevalent throughout Europe; the willful child, monarchy with man of the house and children as servants.
Calvinist doctrine
influenced childrearing beliefs of the early puritans in the U.S.; the sinful child; corporal punishment instead of parental affection; brutal beating for punishment
Rousseau
consider the nature of the child
G. Stanley Hall
Child Study Movement in late 1800s; received the first PhD in psychology. respected the true nature and needs of the child; children are not like adults
Sigmund Freud
Austrian born founder of psychoanalysis. childrens drive and view of mother as the prototype for all future relationships with child. more relaxed approach to childrearing
Jean Jacques Rousseau
children are basically good and that under optimal conditions their innate talents would emerge
John Watson
American psychologist who was strongly opposed to parental affection; should not be responsive and nurturing to children
John Locke
children as blank slate; for parental affection
Fixation
Freud believes this means a weakness that obstructs the process of development
Attachment theory
developed by British psychologist, John Bowlby, in the early 1940s that children have natural instincts that should be considered when parents are socializing them.
Mary Ainsworth
emotionally available caregivers contribute to the development of attachment; to give children what they need
attachment
the affectional tie that one person forms to another specific person, binding them together in space and enduring over time
Rene Spitz
French psychologist who provided indisputable data demonstrating that the responsiveness of the caregiver to infants cries and other gestures of communication are crucial to infant development
Erik Erikson
follower of Freud who believed by being consistently responsive to their infants needs during the stage of development, parents contributing to the infant's development of a sense of trust.
Benjamin Spock
challenged unresponsive and lenient parenting. children need limits of affection. rules but also love and guidance
B.F. Skinner
Principles of Operant conditioning- how one responds to that behavior will tell if that behavior will be repeated; environment big role in development
contingency
refers to the relation between a behavior and the events that follow the behavior
Social Learning Theory
developed by Bandura and Walters, that children do not have to be directly reinforced or punished to learn a behavior. instead children learn from imitation and modeling
Friedrich Froebel
pioneer of child study who believed that everything a child does is significant and of educational importance; child was inborn drive to learn.
Caroline Pratt
believed childhood work was learning and that it is in play that children get their work done.
Maria Montessori
first woman physician in Italy in 1892, allow children to explore and learn, all children have absorbent minds
Jean Piaget
Swiss psychologist who began to influence European views of childrearing saying children construct their own cognitive structures from environment and surroundings.
Lev Vygotsky
children as active participants in learning process; soviet union; need for parents to guide their children in learning
zone of proximal development
between the child's ability to perform the skill with the guidance and assistance of a more capable individual
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor Stage, preoperational stage, concrete operational stage, formal operations stage
Alfred Adler
developed the Social Discipline theory; all members of the household are allowed to raise issues and respect everyone's issues; parent and child have equal worth
Urie Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory
represents a model for studying people in their diverse social environments and draws attention to the assorted contexts that impact the socialization process and the ongoing development of the individual.
Authoritative
controlling and demanding of children but also nurturing and communicative with children; children have more positive outcomes than do children reared by parent who have authoritarian, permissive, indulgent or indifferent parenting. high levels of achievement
Authoritarian
firmly grounded; forceful parenting; keeping children in place; assigning household chores; children are not encouraged to think for themselves; parents don't show affection; inhibit childrens emotional development; children tend to be dependent, passive and conforming
Permissive
noncontrolling and nondemanding; not organized or effective in running house; let children run around; children are immature and less responsible and less happy and lower academic achievement but higher grades when compared to authoritarian parents
Indulgent parents
lax parenting style; do not exercise control of children; low demanding and high response; very involved with children; children tend to be irresponsible and immature; also conform to peers and more likely to be involved in crime
Indifferent parents
rejected or don't spend enough time with child; uninvolved and uninterested in child; child tends to be aggressive, peer rejection, low academic scores, and dependence on alcohol or other drugs. delinquency and early sexual involvement
Inconsistent parents
parents with different views of parenting and is harmful for child.