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32 Cards in this Set

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Arthropods characteristics
1.75% of all animal species
2.exoskeleton
3.insects=6 legs
4.arachnids=8 legs
Phylum Arthropoda
1.Blackfly(simulians)
2.Glossina-tsetse fly
3.Psychodidae-sandflies(phlebotamus, Lutzomyia)
4.Culicidae-mosquitoes
5.Reduviids
6.Fleas
7.Lice
Subphylum Chelicerata (acarina, Arachnids)
1.Ixodidae-Hard ticks
2.Argasidae-soft ticks
3.Human mites
4.Sarcoptes Scabeii
Gradual Metamorphosis
1.Eggs
2.Nymphs
3.Adults
Complete Metamorphosis
1.Eggs
2.Larvae
3.Pupa
4.Adult
Myiasis
1.Dipteran(fly) Larvae invading living animal tissue
2.Facultative-Musca Domesticus
3.Obligatory-Bed bugs(cimex)
Bed bugs(cimex)
1.7sp for hummans
2.in beds, walls
3.feed at night, no pain
4.NOT a vector
Lice(walking birthmarks) characteristics, treatment
1.Complete Metamorphosis
2.Mammalian Lice-Anaplura:
-Pediculus Humanus
-Phthirus pubis
3.Adults can surv 10days w/o host, nits last longer
4.Insecticides=pyrethrins, Kwell(resistance occuring)
Head vs. body lice
identical but not interbread
Head
1.lay eggs on hair shafts
body
1.eggs in seams of clothing(300per life of female)
2.can inc. mass 5000x in 3 months
Fleas (Siphonaptera) Characteristics
1.Ectoparasites of all warm blooded
2.host preferences, but not exclusive
3.survive unfed-3yrs in humidity
Siphonaptera growth
1.Complete metamorphosis(3larval instars, pupa)
2.Eggs fall off host, mature->nest
Siphonaptera Body
1.6 legs
2.Hind pair has resilin(elastic prot) for jumping
3.Legs have hooks for fur
Important Fleas
1.Pulex irritans
2.Xenopsylla sp.-Rat fleas
3.Tunga penetrans-sand flea/chigger
-penetrates skin, nail base, b/w toes
-painful and irritating
Chelicerata types, life stages
1.850 important ticks
2.35,000 mites
3.3 life stages
-Larva (6 legs)
-Nymph (1 or more)
-Adult (8 legs)
Ticks, types
1.Argasids-Soft ticks
2.Ixodidae-Hard ticks
Argasids characteristics
1.Soft ticks
2.can't see head
3.nocturnal feeders(few minutes)
4.bird ticks
Ixodidae characteristics
1.Hard ticks
2.can see head, Dorsal scutum(shield)
3.host preferences
"Three host" hard ticks
1.Female drops off, lays thousands of eggs, dies
2.Gene's organ->waterproof wax
3.Larva(hexapod) absorb water, find host, feed for days, drops off
4.Molts on ground to nymph, finds new host, feeds 4-8 days, drops off
5.Molts to adult, new host, mates, engorges, drops off
Ticks Host Finding
1.Sense ground vibrations
2.Climbs to top of vegatation
3.Haller's organ(front legs)wave around(questing behavior)
-odors
-temperatures
-CO2
Ticks feeding
1.Haller's organ helps find spot to bite
2.Chelicerae
-sense ATP
-pierce skin
3.Hypostome-anchor
4.secrete cement
5.engorgement->inc. weight by 200x
ticks mating
1.blend of phenols secreted by male
2.mate on and off host
Ticks as ectoparasites
Tick Paralysis
-46 species
-single female tick can cause
-symptoms appear in 5-7 days
Mites Lifecycle
1.Egg
2.larva
3.2-3 nymph stages
4.adult
Mites breathing
1.Stigmata(large mites)-trachea branching
2.Astigmata(small)-cutaneous
Scabies (genus/characteristics)
Sarcoptes Scabei
-adult=250uM long
-causes scabies in humans
-mange in animals
Dust mites (species)
1.Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus
2.D. Farinae
3.Euroglyphus Maynei
dust mites (characteristics)
1.on all continents, every house
2.perfer humid
3.maybe 2700/g of dust
4.reared in lab from electric bear trimmings
Insecticides types
1.DDT/Pyrethrins
2.Organophosporous & Carbamates
3.Bti
DDT/Pyrethrins (origin, target)
1.pyrethrins first from flowers, DDT from war
2.Target-Na-volt-gated sodium channel
-block channel and slow nerve conduction
Organophosporous & Carbamates (history/target)
1.origionally nerve poisons
2.Target=Acetylcholinesterase
-irrev bind serine, stop recycling of acetylcholine
Bti
1.Bacillus thuringensis
2.make 5 toxin prots during sporulation
-lyse larval midgut cells
3.easily develope resistance
Insecticide Resistance
1.Point mutations in target
2.detoxifying enzymes