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53 Cards in this Set

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Normal flora
organisms that are normally and consistently found in or on the body in absence of disease
Symbiosis
close association or living together of organisms of different species
Mutualism
type of symbiosis in which both host and parasite benefit
commensalism
type of symbiosis where the commensal is benefited and the host is neither benefited nor harmed by the relationship
Parasitism
obligatory relationship in which one organism, the parasite, is metabollically dependent on another organism, the host. the host is usually harmed by such a relationship
Obligate parasites
parasites that cannot survive in a free living state
facultative parasite
parasites that normally have a free-existence and establish a parasitic relationship with a host if the opportunity presents itself
endoparasites
parasites that live inside the host
ectoparasites
parasites that live in the outer surface of the host
definitive hosts
hosts in which a parasite reaches sexual maturity and reproduces
Intermediate hosts
host in which some development of the parasite occurs but does not mature
Reservoir hosts
animals that harbor a species of parasite that is also parasitic for humans and from which a human may become infected
vector hosts
arthropods or other living carriers that transport a pathogenic microorganism from an infected to a noninfected host
Paratenic hosts
animals that ingest infected intermediate hosts and become intermediate hosts themselves
Dead-end hosts
organisms that harbor a life stage of a parasite but do not transmit the parasite to another host thus not allowing it to continue its life cycle
Fecal concentrations
-used to concentrate parasitic forms in fecal samples
-based on the fact that parasistic forms will float in zinc sulfate solutions of high osmolarity and specimens can be collected onto a glass slide and observed with a light microscope
KOH preparations
-used as a quick and inexpensive way of viewing clinical specimens for the presence of microscopic arthropods
- cause most tissue elements to become dissolved leaving parasitic forms that retain their shape and color are observed with light microscopy
Giemsa stain
-used when intracellular structures are to be examined
-stains tissue and blood cells showing blue-colored intracellular parasites, sometimes with a halo around them
Trichome stain
-standard procedure used for staining parasites in fecal material
-stains protozoan cells pink with blue-green organells
Wright's stain
-is used for identification of cell types in blood smears
-stains leucocytes and erythrocytes as well as protozoans or microfilariae in blood smears
Acid-fast stain
-used to find and identify small protozoans in fecal smears
-stains cells pink with blue background making them easy to find
Antimony sodium gluconate
blocks energy production in protozoan cells
Azithromycin, oxytetracycline
inhibit protein synthesis
Chloroquine, Diloxanide furoate
inhibits hemoglobin breakdown in erythrocytes
Fumagillin
inhibits enzyme activity in protozoan cells
Metronidazole
binds to and inhibits DNA synthesis and protein formation
Nifurtimox
inhibits DNA synthesis and damages protozoan cell membranes
Pyrimethamine sulfadiazine, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole
inhibits DNA synthesis and disrupts mitochondria
Suramin
inhibits enzyme activity and damages intracellular organelles
Names of protozoan chemotherapy
Antimony sodium gluconate,
Azithromycin, oxytetracycline
Chloroquine, Diloxanide furoate, Fumagillin, Metronidazole, Nifurtimox, Pyrimethamine sulfadiazine, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, Suramin
Praziquantel
-only trematode chemotherapy
-increases Ca2+ permeability producing a muscle paralysis and vacuolization and vesiculation of the worm's tegument
Niclosamide
-only cestode chemotherapy
-inhibits phosporylation in the mitochondria of tapeworms
Names of Nematode Chemotherapy
Diethylcarbamazine, albendazole, mebendazole, thiabendazole, triclabendazole, ivermectin
Diethylcarbamazine
damages microfilarial membranes and immobilizes larvae
Albendazole, mebendazole, thiabendazole, triclabendazole
inhibits cytoplasmic microtubule formation
Ivermectin
increases Cl- permeability producing a paralysis of nematode muscles
Lindane
-only arthropod chemotherapy
-neurological poison
Decription of a protozoan
microscopic, parasitic, unicellular organisms, ranging in size frone one um to 100 um that occur singly or in colony formations
Protozoan bodies contain...
protoplasm that is differentiated into a nucleus, cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic organelles
The protozoan cytoplasms consists of...
a think outer ectoplasm and a large inner endoplasm
Protozoan ectoplasm functions in...
movement, ingestion of food excretion, respiration and proection
protozoans respire by taking in_____ and expelling____.
o2/co2
Protozoans extrude undigested particles through the ectoplasm into their external environment by:
osmotic pressure, diffusion, and precipitation
Protozoans secrete...
digestive ferments pigments, proteolytic enzymes, hemolysins, cytolysins, antigenic substances and material for cysts walls
Protozoan endoplasm is...
granular and functions in nutrition and reproduction and contains food vacuoles, food reserves, foreign bodies, contractile vacuoles and chromatoidal bodies
Protozoans contractile vacuoles function in...
the regulation of osmotic pressure and the elimination of waste material
Protozoan nucleus contains...
an outer nuclear membrane, an inner reticulum, and chromatin and a karyosome
Protozoan locomotion is by...
flagella, cilia, pseudopodia, or undulating membranes
Protozoan flagella are...
fine, filamentous extensions of the cytoplasm
Protozoan cilia are
elongated, hair like organelles that aid in the ingestion of food and serve as sensory organelles
Protozoans absorb
liquid food and psuedopodia are temporary projections used for ingestion of food and movement
Protozoan asexual reproduction
by binary fission, multiple fission (schizogony) or endodyogeny
Protozoan sexual reproduction
conjugation or syngamy (fertilization)