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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
___% of the world is infected with the nematode ___
25
ascaris lumbricoides
a. lumbricoides eggs are ___ and are notable for ___
bumpy
resistance to environmental stress
a. lumbricoides eggs can survive for ___ years in soil
3--5
a. lumbricoides life cycle (6)
females in human intestine release eggs
eggs in feces are eaten
in human intestine, juveniles hatch from eggs
juveniles go through epithelium into bloodstream to lungs
juveniles are coughed up and swallowed
they mature into adults into intestine
a. lumbricoides symtoms (4)
dyspnea
abdominal pain
abdominal distension
anorexia
a. lumbricoides are sensitive to ___ and will leave host if they're present
anesthetics
a. lumbricoides drugs
benzimidazole
piperazine
pyrantel pamoate
a. lumbricoides feed on ___
bacteria
Enterobius vermicularis is aka (2)
E. vermicularis is endemic to ___
pinworm
threadworm
worldwide
E. vermicularis eggs contain ___ visible under LM
infective larva
E. vermicularis life cycle (5)
females in human intestine crawl to anus
they lay eggs on perianal skin
eggs are spread in environment
humans eat eggs
eggs hatch in intestine
symptoms worsen at ___ due to ___
night
crawling of female
T/F: most infections cause severe symtoms
false: most are light or asymptomatic
e. vermicularis drugs
mebendazole
pyrantel pamoate
Trichinella spiralis is associated with ___
eating undercooked meat or pork
male T. spiralis dies after ___
copulation
T. spiralis life cycle (4)
1. females in intestine produce living juveniles
2. juveniles leave intestine and penetrate muscle tissue
3. humans eat muscle
4. muscle is digested and juveniles mature into adults in intestine
intestinal symptoms of T. spiralis (4)
nausea
vomiting
pain
diarrhea
circulatory symptoms of T. sprialis (5)
edema
periorbital conjunctivitis
photophobia
FCHM
eosinophilia
myocardial symptoms of T. spiralis
chest pain
tachycardia
thrombosis
brain symptoms of T. spiralis (5)
headache
vertigo
deafness
apathy
coma
progression of T. spiralis symptoms
GIT
circulatory
myocardial
brain
diagnostic signs for T. spiralis (4)
eosinophilia
elevated CPK
elevated LD
serology
T. spiralis drugs (2)
for adult: any nematocide
for L1: benzimidazole
Filariasis is caused by ___ (3). in severe cases it causes ___
Wucheria bancrofti
Brugia malayi
Brugia timori
elephantiasis
Filariasis life cycle (6)
1. in lymphatics, adults produce microfilariae
2. microfilariae migrate to blood at night
3. mosquito ingests microfilariae by biting human
4. microfilariae mature to larvae in mosquito
5. mosquito injects larvae when it bites a person
6. larvae mature to adults in lymphatics
to diagnose W. bancrofti, you need to take blood sample at ___
night
stages of filariasis (4)
asymptomatic incubation
acute stage
recovery
reinfection
acute stage of filariasis is characterized by (6)
edema
pain
weakness
headache
insomnia
no fever
filariasis drugs
diethylcarbamazine
ivermectine
filariasis drugs drugs can cause a worsening of the patient's condition by ___. to prevent this, give ___
releasing LPS from Wolbachia, a gram negative bacterium which infects filarial worms
tetracycline
Dracunculus medinensis life cycle (7)
1. females in foot create blister so foot is inserted into water
2. blister breaks releasing juveniles
3. juveniles eaten by copepod (IH)
4. humans drink water with copepods and juveniles
5. juveniles exit intestinal tract and go to subcutaneous tissue
6. juveniles mature and mate
7. females go to feet
Onchocerca volvulus causes ___ aka ___
river blindness
onchocerciasis
onchocerciasis is endemic to ___ (2)
subsaharan africa
central america
onchocerca life cycle (5)
1. females in subcutaneous nodules release microfilariae
2. microfilariae are ingested by black fly (IH) when it bites
3. microfilariae mature into juveniles
4. black fly injects juveniles into human
5. juveniles make subcutaneous nodules and mature into adults
T/F flies transmitting onchocerca need polluted water
false: need clean water
nodules of onchocerciasis consist of ___ and contain
collagen
several worms
onchocerciasis is associated with ___ and in severe cases ___
dermatitis
corneal invasion by microfilariae
onchocerca drugs: ___ kills adults but is nephrotoxic. ___ is a microfilaricid but is dangerous for pregnant women
suramin
ivermectin
Loa loa is aka
eye worm
loa loa is endemic to
south western coast of Africa
Loa loa life cycle is identical to ___, except ___ (2)
filariasis
IH is deerfly
larvae home to subcutaneous tissue
the characteristic lesion in loa loa is ___, created by ___
calabar swelling
migration of adults through subcutaneous tissue
loa loa drugs
diethyl carbamazine
ivermectine
Trichuris trichuria life cycle (4)
1. adults in cecum release eggs into feces
2. human eats eggs in feces
3. eggs hatch in small intestine
4. larvae mature in cecum
t. trichuria drugs
mebendazole
strongyloides stercoralis parasitic life cycle (6)
1. females in intestine release eggs which hatch while in intestine
2. juveniles released in feces
3. juveniles molt, becoming filarial larvae
4. filarial larvae penetrate skin of human and home to lung
5. larvae get coughed up and swallowed
6. larvae mature in GIT
strongyloides stercoralis free-living life cycle (2)
1. juveniles mature into rhabditiform larvae
2. larvae mature into adults and mate
s. stercoralis cutaneous symptoms (2)
itching
red blotches
s. stercoralis pulmonary symptoms
verminous pneumonia
s. stercoralis GI symptoms (4)
pain
nausesa
diarrhea
dysentery
in ___ (2) s. stercoralis infection is particularly severe and is fatal without rapid treatment
infants
immunosuppressed
s. stercoralis drugs
thiabendazole
ivermectin