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81 Cards in this Set

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Erratic/Aberrant Parasite
wandering from usual locatin/organ to another where it does not usually live
(HW - eye)
Incidental parasite
occurs in host in which it does not normally live
(hookworm - SC in children)
Facultative parasite
free-living organism in nature that becomes a parasite in certain hosts
(lice)
Obligatory parasite
must lead a parasitic life. not capable of free-living existence (HW)
Periodic parasite
does not have to necessarily live on or within host. (mosquito, tick)
Intermediate host
Harbors larval, juvenile, or immature forms. May be more than one in the life cycle. Transfers parasite from one host to another. Parasite changes and develops in this host.
Transport / Paranteric host
Intermediate host. No change develops, but remains arrested/encysted. Once in definitive host, larvae "wake up"
Groups of parasites (6)
Platyhelmniths
Nematodes
Acanthocephalins
Annelids
Arthropods
Protozoans
Annelids
leeches
Arthropods
insects, mites, ticks, spiders
Platyhelminths
flattened
Trematodes & Flukes
Nematodes
roundworms, largest group
Acanthocephalins
thorny-headed worms
Protozoans
unicellular organisms
Toxoplasmosis, giardia, coccidiosis
Trophozoite
motile form of protozoan
Cyst
non-motile form
Mastigophora
flagellated protozoans

giardia, leishmania,
tritrichomonas foetus
Giardia - source
contaminated water
Giardia - diagnosis
motile trophozoites in saline
immunodiagnostic tests
Giardia - treatment
Metronidazole x 5 days
Panacur
Leishmania sp.
blood protozoan
transmitted by sandflies
diagnose with biopsy
Tritrichomonas foetus
spontaneous abortion in cattle
Sarcodina
Protozoa subphylum
Amoebas
Entamoeba histolytica
produces amebic dysentry
primates
motile forms in direct smear or fecal float
Ciliophora
Protozoa subphylum
Balantidium coli
Ichthyophthirium multifiliis
Balantidium coli
diarrhea in dogs, in cecum & colon. more common in swine
Ichthyophthirium multifiliis
Ich. May be visible to naked eye under epidermis of fish. Waterborne, difficult to treat
Apicomplexans
protozoa phylum - largest group
Isospora, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, Babesia, Sarcocystis
Isospora canis/felis
common name
coccidia
Isospora sp. prepatent period
7-14 days
Isospora spp, coccidia
Name
Ancyclostoma caninum, hookworm
Name
Toxocara canis, roundworm
Name
Trichuris vulpis, whipworm
Name
Arthropods type of skeleton
chitonous exoskeleton

drugs effect chitin
Arthropods body cavity
hemocoel, filled with hemolymph
Arthropods circulatory system
primitive w/ primitive tube
Arhropods respiratory system
variaty: gills, book lungs, tracheal tubes
Major SubPhylums of Arthropods
Mandibulata
Chelicarata
Mandibulata - 3 classes
Crustacea
Myriopoda
Insecta
Class Crustacea
aquatic arthropods
usually intermediate hosts
casual agents on fish
Class Myriopoda
centipedes, millipeds
toxin producing
Class Insecta - anatomy
Head: brain, mouthparts, antennae +/- eyes

Thorax: 3 pairs of legs, +/- wings

Abdomen: reproductive organs
Insecta life stages
Simple: egg, nymph, adult

Complex: egg, larvae, pupa, adult
Dictoptera
cockroaches, vector for salmonella
Coleoptera
beetles, intermediate hosts for Spirocerca lupi, a nematode that produces esophageal nodules
Hemiptera
bugs
Reduvid bugs
kissing bugs

intermediate host for protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi

suck blood from host and defecate
Bed bugs
Cimex lectularius

periodic blood meals
Problems in rabbits, poultry, people
Chewing Lice

name and characteristics
Mallophaga

smaller, yellow, large head
Sucking Lice

name and characteristics
Anoplura

bigger, red to gray, smaller head
Lice anatomy
flattened dorsoventrally, wingless, 3 body sections

legs on thorax for holding on
Order Diptera
two-winged flies
Myiasis
flies develop in SQ tissue or internal organs
Flea - order & scientific name
Siphonaptera

Ctenocephalides felis
Pentastomes
reptile parasites
Canine pentastome
Linguatula serrata
Soft ticks
Argasid
Hard ticks
Ixodid
Mites and Ticks

subphylum, class
Chelicerata, Acarina
Acarina anatomy
not insects

two-part body:
capitulum (mouth)
idiosome (abdomen)

mouthparts suck blood to attach
Acarina reproduction
no metamorphosis

egg, larva, nymph, adult
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Tick
Dermacentor andersoni
Benzimidazoles - names
Thiabendazole (Equizole/TBA)
Febendazole (Panacur)
Albendazole
Mebendazole (Telmintic)
Oxibendazole (Anthelcide EQ)
Benzimadozole uses
Dogs: R,H,W, Taenia
Cattle/Sheep: Ascarids, liver flukes, tapeworms, lungworms
Exotics
Benzimadozole adverse effects
V/D, hepatotoxicity

not for cats
Organophosphate names
Trichlorfon (Combot)
Coumaphos (Baymix)
Haloxon
Dichlorvos (Task)
Organosphosphate uses
systemic against bots in large animals

used little in D & C
Organophosphate adverse effects
V/D, tremors, hypersalivation, miosis, bad for environment
Organophosphate antidote
Anthicholinergics (Atropine)
Tetrahydropyrimidines names
Pyrantel pamoate (Nemex, Strongid)
Tetrahydropyrimidines use
D&C: roundworms & hookworms

Domestic: ascarids, strongyl, pinworms

very safe
Imidazothiazoles names
Febantel
Levamisole
Imidazothiazoles uses
D&C: roundworm, hookworm, whipworm

Domestic: Strongyl, lungworms
Avermectins names
Ivermectic (Heartguard, Ivomec)
Avermectin uses
Dogs: roundworm, hookworm, HW larvacide (preventative), sarcoptes, ear mites

Domestic: numerous species (bots, lice)

Birds/Snakes: some parasites
Praziquantel use
anticestodal

taenia, dyplidium, echinococcus
Coccidia drugs
Amprolium
Sulfadimethoxine (Albon)
Giardia drugs
Metronidazole
Panacur (Febendazole)
Spirocerca lupi
nematode that produces esophageal nodules

beetles intermediate hosts
Trypanosoma cruzi
kissing bugs intermediate host