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9 Cards in this Set

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Kinetoplasta
Have kinetoplast - DNA containing portion of Mitochondrian

Trypanosoma/Leishmania
Trypanosomatida
NO CYST
Trophozoites: 2 states
- Trypomastigotes - crescent, flagellum, undulating membrane, thin kinetoplast
- Amastigotes - round, round kinetoplast, vestigal flagella

ONLY trypomastigotes - African Trypanosoma

BOTH - American T. cruzi

ONLY Amastigotes - Leishmania
Trypanosoma
Hemoflagellates
Indirect cycle - vertebrate host, blood-feeding insect vector

Except - T. equiperdum - coitus
T. evansi/T vivax (in SA) - mechanical

Classing by mech of vector trans:
Stercoraria - Contaminative trans
- Multiply in gut of vector, infectious form in hindgut/feces
- Discontinuous mult. invert (immune response reduces/elim)
Most non-pathogens, except T. cruzi
Salivaria -
Stercorarian spp
Trypanosoma theileri - cattle
- tabanid flie vector

Trypanosoma melophagium - sheep
- Sheep ked vector (host ingests)
Trypanosoma cruzi
Stercorarian, widely distrub in Americas, Zoonotic
Chaga's disease, rel non-host spec
US Reservioirs - opossums, raccoons, armadillos, skunks, rodents (SE)

Indirect cycle - reduviid vector
- Nocturnal, painless bite, defecate after leaving host
- Vector defec on vert, metacyclics deposited on skin, host rubs metacyclics into bite/muc membr
- Also blood transfison, vector ingest, transplacental/transmammary

Trypomastigotes penetrate card/smooth muscle/macros
- Become amastigotes, repeat cycle
T. cruzi Parasitemia
Acute - many trypomastigotes in blood, amastigotes in cells in tissue
- Peaks at 2-3 weeks PI, hard to find in bld30 DPI
- Dx: C/S shaped trypomastigotes in bld, large terminal kinetoplast
- Examine LN aspirate for both forms

Chronic- intracellular amastigote foci persist in tissues
- Location protects from Ig
- ~5 yrs: Fatal dilated cardiomyopathy

Acute in Dogs: + LN, weakness, D+, encephalitis (uncommon),
Acute myocarditis (2-3 weeks)
- Abnormal ECG, RS Heart failure + ascites, weak pulse, sudden death
Chronic Dog - Abnormal ECG, hear dilation (R->L), asymp until end stage failure
Dx - Serology, Isolate/ID, Postmortem: Amastigotes in r heart
Tx - Benznidazole, Nifurtimox, Ketoconazole - Chronic, limited
Salivaria spp
Inoculative transm- vector bite, multiply in vector gut, infect form in salivary glands
Continuous multiplication - in vert, trypanosomes escape immune system

Variable Surface Glycoprotein - covers entire parasite, antigenic variation allows peaks of parasitism
African Trypanosomiasis
T. congolense, vivax, brucei
Acute - intermittent fever, wt loss, death 3-4 wks
Chronic - intermittent fever, anemia, lymphadenopathy, prog. emaciation
- Animals can become cachetic

T. vivax - Emerged from Africa indepent of tse-tse
- Mech trans iatrogenic/ biting flies
- effects cattle, some horses

T.evansi - surra
- Most mammals, camels/horses principal
- Horse, tse-tse, & stable flies
- Fever, edema, cachexia, anemia
Trypanosoma equiperdum
Equidae venereal disease (Dourine)
Eradicated from US, all horses must be seronegative for Ig
Transmission - Veneral
Mare to foal (rare) - Vaginal disch -> mus membr -> mares milk

Asexually repro, Localizes in sub Q at repro tract-> blood (1-4 wks, see discharge, swelling, pos. abortion, incre urine/libido)

1-2 mos - Urticarial cutaneous plaques (silver dollar) on chest/flank/rump (wax and wane)
- parasit mulip/host react

Stage 3 - Anemia, CNS signs

Dx - skin signs, + complement-fixation test
- ID parasite in repro secretions, bld, skin plaque fluid
Tx - Euthanasia