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29 Cards in this Set

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What is single-stranded RNA?
RNA that has 1 strand of nucleic acid
What is unique about negative ssRNA?
Negative ssRNA must first be converted into positive ssRNA before it can be translated.
What enzyme is needed to aid in te replication of -ssRNA?
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
What is the general site of nucleic acid replication of RNA viruses?
Cytoplasm
What RNA viruses are the exceptions?

Where do they replicate?
Orthomyxoviridae (-ssRNA)
Retrovirus (+ssRNA)

Nucleus
What is an enveloped virus?
A virus that has a lipid bilayer outer membrane surrounding its nucleic acid, which when present, plays an important role in viral penetration.
How do viruses acquire this envelope?
From host cell membrane secondary to viral host cell budding.
How do enveloped viruses enter host cells?
Fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane.
What are capsids?

What do they look like?
Proteinaceous shells that surround viruses.

Icosahedral
Helical
What four genera are in the Paramyxoviridae family?
Paramyxoviridae
Rubulavirus
Morbillivirus
Pneumovirinae
What are four clinical manifestations caused by Paramyxoviridae infections?
Parainfluenza/croup (Paramyxoviridae)
RSV (Pneumovirinae
Mumps (Rubulavirus)
Measles (Morbillivirus)
Which Paramyxoviridae membrane lycoprotein is responsible for viral-cell fusion?
F protein
What is another name for croup?
Actue laryngotracheobronchitis
Do Paramyxoviridae have HA and NA?
YES

Both are present
How is it possible to distinguish beetween influenza and parainfluenza in regards to HA and NA?
In parainfluenza, HA and NA are on the same surface spikes

In influenza, HA and NA are on different surface spikes.
What are the clinical characteristics of parainfluenza?
Upper and lower respiratory tract infection without viremia.
In what patient population is respiratory syncytial virus responsible for bronchiolitis?

What is this?
Palivizumab (Synagis)

A monoclonal antibody to RSV
What is the clinical presentation of mumps?
Swollen parotid glands
What are three possible postinfection sequelae of mumps?
Parotitis
Orchitis
Aseptic meningitis
When is the yearly peak incidence of mumps?
Winter
Are HA and NA present in mumps?
YES

Both are present
What is the cell receptor for measles?
CD46 molecule
How are measles transmitted?
Respiratory droplets
What are the clinical features of measles?
1) Prodromal period of fever
2) Upper respiratory symptoms
3) Maculopapular rash
4) Koplik spots
5) Conjunctivitis
How does the maculopapular rash associated with measles spread?
Cranial caudally, i.e., away from the head
What are Koplik spots?
White spots on brignt-red oral mucous membranes.
What is the characteristic cytopathoogy of measles?
Multinucleated giant cells due to fusion of F proteins
What is a severe complication of measles several years following infection?
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
Are HA and NA present in measles?
Only HA is present