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86 Cards in this Set

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Medium in which all metabolic reactions occur
Body Water
Fluid inside all body cells
Intracellular fluid
40% of total body weight
Intracellular fluid
Fluid found outside the cells
Extracellular fluid
20% of total body weight
Extracellular fluid
ECF between the cells and outside the vascular bed
Interstitial Fluid
15-16% of total body weight
Interstitial Fluid
Water accounts for what percentage of total body weight in adults ?
50 - 60%
Water accounts for what percentage of total body weight in infants ?
About 80%
Water accounts for what percentage of total body weight in childhood ?
60-65%
Water accounts for what percentage of total body weight in the elderly ?
45-55%
Flow of fluid across a semipermiable membrane from a lower solute concentration to higher one
Osmosis
Solution that has a higher solute concetration (and lower water concentration) than that inside a cell
Hypertonic
Solution that causes a cell to shrink
Hypertonic
Solution that causes a cell to swell
Hypotonic
Solution that has a lower solute concentration (and a higher water concentration) than that inside the cell
Hypotonic
A passive process in which molecules or ions move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Diffusion
Mechanisms required to move large, water-soluble molecules or electrically charged molecules across the cell membranes
Mediated Transport Mechanisms
Proteins that combine with solute molecules on one side of a membrane, change shape, pass through the membrane then release the solute molecule on the other side
Carrier Molecules
Hyper Hypo Iso Fluids

Sodium Bicard
Hypertonic
Hyper Hypo Iso Fluids

D-50
Hypertonic
Hyper Hypo Iso Fluids

Manitol
Hypertonic
Fluids

Treatment of cerebral edema
Manitol
Fluids

treatment of metabolic acidosis
Sodium Bicrbonate
Fluids

Treatment of profound hypoglycemia
D-50 (50% Dextrose)
Hyper Hypo Iso Fluids

By Drawing tissue fluid into the vascular space, these solutions may reduce both the volume of the infussion and the occurance of pulmonary problems after resuscitation
Hypertonic
Dextran, hetastarch, and sodium chloride
Hyper Hypo Iso Fluids

Supply the patient with calories, replenish salt and water (water drawn into the cells)
Hypotonic
Hyper Hypo Iso Fluids

Used to hydrate patients
Hypotonic
Hyper Hypo Iso Fluids

2.5% dextrose in water
Hypotonic
Hyper Hypo Iso Fluids

.45% normal saline
Hypotonic
Hyper Hypo Iso Fluids

D-5-W
Isotonic, but acts physiologically as hypotonic
Hyper Hypo Iso Fluids

Usually given to replace extracellular fluid
Isotonic
Hyper Hypo Iso Fluids

Volume relacement due to blood loss or vomiting
Isotonic
Hyper Hypo Iso Fluids

May be prescribed for any patient in whom the chloride loss equals or exceeds the sodium loss
Isotonic
Hyper Hypo Iso Fluids

.9% Normal Saline
Isotonic
Hyper Hypo Iso Fluids

Lactated Ringers
Isotonic
The exchange of nutrients and metabolic end products takes place in ....
Capillaries
Control capillary blood flow
capillary shincter
Accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces
Edema
This is a problem of fluid distribution and does not always indicate a fluid excess
Edema
And increase in hydrostatic pressure, a decreases in the plasma oncotic pressure, an increase in capillary permiability or lymphatic obstruction can cause ...
Edema
Venus obstruction or sodium and water retention can cause...
Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure
The formation of a blood clot and inflammation in a vein
Thrombophlebitis
Sodium and water retention can cause an increase in circulating fluid volume...also known as...
Volume Overload
Sodium and water retention can cause
Edema
CHF and renal failure are two conditions associated with retention of....
Sodium and water retention
This condition most often results from liver disease or protein malnutrition
Decrease plasma oncotic pressure
Allergic reactions, inflamation and the immune response triggered by trauma can cause what in the capillaries
Increased Capillary Permiability
Water balance is mainly regulated by what hormone
ADH

Antidiuretic Hormone
An increase in plasma osmolality or a decrease in circulating blood volume and a decline in venous and arterial pressure will trigger release of what?
ADH

Antidiuretic Hormone
What regulates water balance
Sodium
Dehydration

Excessive loss of sodium and water in equal amounts
Isotonic dehydration
Dehydration

Loss of more water than sodium
Hypernatremic Dehydration
Dehydration

Loss of more sodium than water
Hyponatremic Dehydration
Dehydration

Severe or long term vomiting or diarrhea
Systemic infection
intestinal obstruction
Isotonic Dehydration
Dehydration

Diuretics
Continued intake of sodium in the absence of water consumption
Excessive loss of with little loss of sodium
profuse, watery diarrhea
Hypernatremic Dehydration
Dehydration

Volmue replacemnet choice for Hypernatremic Dehydration
Isotonic Fluids
Dehydration

Diuretics
excessive perspiration (heat related)
salt-losing renal disorders
increased water intake
Hyponatremic Dehydration
Dehydration

Fluid choice for hyponatremic dehydration
Isotonic fluids

LR or NSL
Abnormally low level of potassium in the blood
Hypokalemia
what electrolyte plays a vital role in normal function of the nerves, cardiac system and skeletal muscle
Potassium
Imbalances with this electrolyte may cause cardiac rythm disturbances
Potassium
Abnormally high level of potassium in the blood
Hyperkalemia
Name the two types of acid produced in the body
Respiratory acids
Metabolic acids
What are the two main regulators of Acid-Base blance in the body
Lungs
Kidneys
What secretes respiratory acids
Lungs
What secrete metabolic acids
Kidneys
Materials that release or donate hydrogen ions
Acids
Materials that receive or absorb hydrogen ions
Bases
Normal ratio of carbonic acid to bicarbonate
1:20
What controls the rate of breathing
Carbon dioxide level in the blood
Concentration of carbonic acid is controlled by what
Lungs
Concentration of bicarbonite is controlled by what
Kidneys
Any condition that increases the carbonic acid or decreases the base bicarbonate cause...
Acidosis
Any condition that increases base bicarbonate or decreases carbonic acid causes...
Alkalosis
Respiratory acidosis is caused by the retention of...
Carbon Dioxide
Metabolic acidosis is caused by a buildup of ________ or a loss of ________
Acid, Base
List the four most common forms of metabolic acidosis
Lactic acidosis
Diabetic Ketoacidosis
renal failure
Toxins
What acid is made when a large number of cells are inadequately perfused
Lactic Acid
What are possible treatments for lactic acidosis
Hyperventilation
rehydration
IV sodium bicarb
What is a common cause of diabetic ketoacidosis
Failure to take insulin
What is the treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis
Normal Saline for volume repletion
What do the kidneys reabsorb or secrete to help maintain acid-base balance
bicarbonate or hydrogen ions
By decreasing the Pco2, hyperventilation can cause..
Respiratory Alkalosis
Acid condition caused by anerobic metabolism and lactic acidosis
Metabolic acidosis
Treatment for metabolic acidosis involves...
neutralizing the acid by reistablishing tissue perfusion and cardiac output