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78 Cards in this Set

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Assay
Purity of the drug
Bio equivalence
Relative therapeutic effectiveness of chemically equivalent drugs
Bioassay
A test to ascertain a drugs availability in a biological model
Teratogenic
Medication that could deform or kill the fetus
Pharmacokinetic
Absorption
Distribution
Biotransformation
Elimination
Active Transport
Uses energy to move a substance
Facilitated Transport
Carrier proteins transport of large molecules across the cell membrane
Facilitated Transport
Carrier proteins transport of large molecules across the cell membrane
Passive Transport
Movement without energy
Facilitated Transport
Carrier proteins transport of large molecules across the cell membrane
Facilitated Transport
Carrier proteins transport of large molecules across the cell membrane
Passive Transport
Movement without energy
Osmosis
High pressure to a lower Pressure
Passive Transport
Movement without energy
Diffusion
High concentrate to a low concentrate
Osmosis
High pressure to a lower Pressure
Ionize
Becomes electrically charged or polar
Bioavailability
The amount of drug that is active after it reaches its target tissue
Blood-brain barrier
Tight junctions of the capillary endothelial cells in the CNS vascular through which only non-protien bound and highly lipid soluble drugs can pass
Placental barrier
Biochemical barrier at the maternal/fetal interface that restricts certain molecules
Metabolism
The body breaking down chemical into different chemicals
Bio-transformation
Special name given to the metabolism of drugs
Prodrug
Medications that is not active when administered but whose bio-transformation converts it into active metabolites
First-pass effect
Liver partial or complete inactivation of a drug before it reaches the systemic cirulation
Oxidation
Loss of hydrogen atoms or the acceptance of an oxygen atom, this increased the positive charge
Hydrolysis
The breaking of a chemical bond by adding water
Enteral Route
Medications that are delivered through the gastrointestinal tract
Parenteral Route
Medications delivered outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Typically needle injections
Receptor
A specialized protein that combines with a drug resulting in a biochemical effect
Affinity
The force of attraction between a drug and a receptor
Efficacy
The drugs ability to cause the expected response
Second Messenger
Chemical that participates in a complex cascading reaction that eventually causes a drugs desired effect.
Down-Regulation
Blinding of a drug or hormone to a target cell receptor that causes a number of receptors to decrease
Up-Regulation
A drug that causes the formation of more receptors then normal
Agonist
A drug that binds to a receptor and causes an expected response
Antagonist
A drug that binds to a receptor site and doesn't cause a it to initiate the expected response
Agonist-Antagonist
A drug that blinds to a receptor and stimulates some of its effects but blocks others
Competitive Antagonist
One drug that blinds to a receptor and causes the expected effect while also blocking another drug from triggering the same receptor
Non-competitive Antagonist
The blinding of an antagonist causes a deformity of the blinding site that prevents an agonist from fitting and blinding
Irreversible Antagonism
A competitive antagonist permanently blinds with a receptor site
Drug response relationship
Correlation of different amounts of a drug to clinical reponse
Plasma-level profile
Describes the lengths of onset, duration and termination of the action as well as the drug's minimum effective concentration and toxic levels
Onset of action
The time from the administration until a medication reaches its minimum effective concentration
Minimum effective concentration
Minimum levels of a drug needed to cause a given effect
Duration of action
Length of time the amount of drug remains above its minimum effective concentration
Termination of action
Time from when the drug's level drops below its minimum effective concentration until it is eliminated from the body
Therapeutic index
Ratio of a drug's lethal dose for 50% of the population to its effective dose for 50% of the population
Biologic half-life
Time the body takes to clear one-half of a drug
Prototype
Drug that best demonstrates the class's common properties and illustrates its particular characteristics
Neuron
Nerve cell
Analgesic
Medication that relieves the sensation of pain
Analgesia
The absence of the sensation of pain
Anesthesia
The absence of all sensation
Adjunct medication
Agent that enhances the effect of another drug
Anesthetic
Medication that induces the loss of sensation to touch and pain
Neuroleptanesthesia
Anesthesia that combines the decreased sensation of pain with amnesia while the patient remains conscious
Psychotherapeutics Medications
Drugs that treat mental dysfunction
Major diseases treated with psychotherapeutic medications
Schizophrenia
Depression
Bipolar disorder
Extrapyramidal symptons
(ESP)
Common side effect of antipsychotic medications: Muscle like tremors and parkinsonism-like effects
Major classes of antipsychotic medications
Phenothiazines
Butyrophenones
Atypicals
Major classes of antidepressant medications
TCA's
SSRI's
MAOI's
Autonomic nervous system
Controls involuntary actions
Autonomic ganglia
Autonomic nerve cells outside of the CNS
Preganglionic nerves
Nerve fibers that extend from the CNS to the autonomic ganglia
Postganglionic Nerves
Nerve fibers that extend from the autonomic ganglia to the target tissue
Synapse
Space between nerves
Neuroeffector junction
Specialized synapse between a nerve cell and the organ or tissue it innervates
Neurotransmitter
Chemical messenger that conducts a nervous impulse across a synapse
Cholinergic
Pertaining to the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine ACh
Adrenegic
Pertaining to the neurotransmitter
Norepinephrine
Parasympathomimetic
Drug or other substances that cause effects like those of the parasympathetic nervous system.
(also called Cholinergic)
Parasympatholytic
Drugs or other substances that block or inhibits the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system
(also called anticholinergic)
SLUDGE : Effects of cholinergic medications
Salivation
Lacrimation
Urination
Defecation
Gastric Motility
Emesis
Parasympathetic Acetylcholine receptors
Muscarinic
Nicotinic
Nicotinic N Neuron
Nicotinic M Muscle
Sympathominetic
Drugs or other substances that causes effects like those of other sympathetic nervous system
( also called adrenegic)
Sympatholytic
Drug or other substances that block the actions of the sympathetic nervous system
( also called antiadrenergic)
Common Catecholamines
Natural
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine
Dopamine

Synthetic
Isoproterenol
Dobutamine
Antihypertensives
Diuretics
Beta-blockers and antiadrenergic
ACE inhibitors
Calcium channel blockers
Direct vasodilators