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77 Cards in this Set

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What is the number of vertebrae in a typical adult
26 segments
what constitutes the spine?
the 24 presacral segments; the cervical, thoracic, an dlumbar vertebrae
which mammals do not have seven cervical vertebrae?
the two toed sloth (6)
the manatee (6)
the ant bear (8)
three toed sloth (9)
what other term is used to identify the vertebral segements of the chest ?
the dorsal segments; the dorsals
what variations account for the disparity in the number and morphoglgy of vertebrae within the population?
GOGI
gender variation, (sexual dimorphisim), ontogenetic variation, geographic or population based and idiosyncratic
what is the length of a typical male spinal column?
about 70 cm or 28 inches
what is the length of the cervical region (both measurements) ?
about 12 cm or 5 inches
how does the vertebral column participate in skeletal formation?
ribs are formed from the embryonic template
what levels of the vertebral column specifically accommodate the weight bearing transfer?
S1-S3 at the auricular suface
distinguish between motion and locomotion.
motion is movement without travel

Locomotion is movement to a new site/location
what organs are specifically associated with the horizontal axis of the skull
the eye and the vestibular apparatus of the ear
what is the general shape of the vertebral body at eaqch region of the spine?
cervical - rectangular
thoracic- triangular
lumbar - reniform
what are the ages of appearance and the events occuring at each step in the formation of bone at the superior and inferrior surface of the vertebral body
7-9 appearance of plate
12 formation of epiphyseal ring
15 formation of epi Rim
what is the generic orientation of the pedicle at each region of the spine?
cervical - posterolateral
thoracic - posterior, slight lateral
Lumbars - posterior
what is the name given to ossified features located at the attachement site of the ligamentum flavum?
para-articular processes
what is the name given to the overlap of laminae seen on an X ray?
shingling
what is the name given to the tubular bone growth regions in the vertebral arch
apophyseal region
what is the generic orientation of the transverse process or transverse apophysis at each region of the spine?
cervical - anterolateral
thoracic - posterolateral
lumbar - lateral
for each region of th soine effected , what will cause the transverse process/transverse apophysis to alter its initial direction ?
cervical - spinal nerves, pulled forward to form plexi,
thoracic- lungs push them backwards
what is the name given to the part of the vertebra forming the pre-zygapophysis?
the superior articular process/apophysis
what will form the posterior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen?
the inferior articular process/post zygapophysis, the superior articular process/pre-zygapophysis, the capsular ligament, and the ligamentum flavum
what will form the inferior boundry of a typical intervertebral foramen?
the superior vertebral notch/ superior vertebral incisure
what will form the anterior boundry of a typical intervertebral foramen?
the vertebral body of teh segment above, the vertebral body of segment below, the intervertebral disc, and the posterior longitudinal ligament
what isthe method of calculating the angle of the spinous process/ spinous apophysis?
the angle formed between the undersurface of the spinous process/spinous apophysis and the horizontal plane
what is the orientation of the spinous process/ spinous apophysis at each region of the spine?
cervical- slight angle inferiorly
thoracic- noticeable angle inferiorly
lumbar - no inferior angle
what is the typical shape/outline of the vertebral foramen at each regionof the spinal column/ vertebral column?
cervical- triangle
thoracic- oval
lumbar-triangle
sacrum - triangle
identify the meninges of the spinal cord/ spinal medulla/ medulla spinalis and the commonly acdepted meaning of each ?
dura mater- tough mother
arachnoid mater- spider mother
pia mater- tender of delicate mother
what is the name given to each space formed between th esseous verterbral foramen and the spinal cord/spinal medulla/medulla spinalis
epidural - betwenn vertebral foramen and dura mater
subdural - between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater
subarachnoid- between that arachnoid and the pia mater
which of the contents of the epidural space are more likely located near or around the posterior longitudinal ligament
anterior spinal canal artery & plexus
anterior internal vertebral venous plexus, basivertebral vein, recurrent meningeal/sinu-vertebral/ sinus vertebral nerve, Hoffman ligaments
what are the typical contents of the subarachnoid space down to level C3?
exceptions * anterior spinal arteries, posterior spinal arteries
what are the typical contents of the subarchnoid space below C7?
exceptions *
AMLAT (anteromedian longitudinal arterial trunk )
PLAT (posterior longitudinal arterial trunk)
what are the branches of the spinal artery?
ossseous arteries, anterior spinal canal arteries, posterior spinal canal arteries,ant. and post. medullary feeder arteries, neural artery
which vessel will supply the anterior/ventral nerve rootlet?
anterior proximal radicular artery
which vessel will supply dorsal/posterior nerve rootlet?
posterior distal radicular artery
what arterial vasa corona branches supplies the gray matter and most of the spinal cord?
ventral/central/sulcal perforating artey
what vessels drain the spinal cord?
pial veins
what will pial veins drain into?
venous vasa corona
which vessels form the venous vasa corona?
right and left anterior longitudinal veins, right and left posterior longitudinal veins, and 4 communicating veisn
what is the location and name given to the area where all meninges first converge at the caudal part of the vertebral column?
typically S2, the dural cul de sac
what is the generic cord level of origin- vertebral level combination for the lumbar/lumbosacral enlargement?
T9, L1-L2 cords
T10, L3-L4 cords
T11, L5- S1
T12, S1-S2
what spinal nerves originate from the conus medullaris?
typically S4,S5 and CO1
what is the name given to the caudal attachment of the meninges?
coccygeal medullary vestige
what is the name given to the condition where the conus medullaris is located below L1 and the filum terminal is thickened?
tethered cord syndrome
what are the primary constituents of the bone mineral ?
calcium, phosphate, citrate and carbonate ions
what are the three responses of bone which allow it to be considered as "living"?
heal , remodel , and age
what are the six commonly used classifications of normal bone.?
long bones, flat bones,irregular bones, paranasal sinus or pnuematic bones, sesamoid bones
what is the name given to bone formed in a non-bone location?
heterotopic
what is the primary charcteristic of short bones?
they are essentially cuboidal
what are the four bacis surface feature categories?
elevations, depressions, tunnels or passageways, & facets
what are the types of osseous linear elevation?
line, ridge , & crest
what are the types of rounded osseous elevations?
tubercle, protuberance, trochanter, tuber or tuberosity, and malleolus
what are the categories of osseous depressions?
linear and rounded depressions
what are the names given to osseous ostia which completely penetrate bone?
foramen or canal
what are the categories of rounded osseous facets
articular heads and articular condyles
what is the name given to the adult skull minus the mandible ?
the cranium
what are the categories of bone forming the typical adult skull
the neocranium, the splanchnocranium or facial skeleton, and the auditory ossicles
what bones form the neocranium of the typical adult skull ?
the frontal, parietal, temporal,occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid.
what regions are present along the typical adult sternum?
the manubrium sterni, the gladiolus sterni, and the xiphopid process.
what are the classifications of ribs 3-7 in the typical adult skeleton
typical ribs,true, costa verae,and vertebrosternal ribs
what are the four subclassifications of synarthrosis joints?
suture, gomphosis, schindylesis, syndesmosis
what are the sutra vera ?
true sutures demonstrating interlocking of the adjacent bone surfaces; typically formed by intramembraneous ossification
what is the complete classification of a joint demonstrating a relatively flat, abutting appearance of the adjacent bone surfaces
synarthrosis suture harmonia
what is the classification of a joint held together with cartilage ?
amphiarthrosis synchondrosis
what is the complete classification of a knuckle type synovial joint?
diarthrosis condylar, diarthrosis bicondylar
what is the complete classification of a ball and socket synovial joint?
diarthrosis cotyloid; diarthrosis spheroidal, diarthrosis enarthrosis
what type of ossification pattern typically forms the true suture?
intramembraneous ossification
which suture classification demonstrtes interlocking and overlapping characteristics?
synarthrosis suture limbous
overlapping, non-interlocking sutures would be examples of which classification?
synarthrosis suture squamous
what is the classification of a Peg in socket joint?
synarthrosis gomphis
which joint classification would involve a fissure condition or appearance?
synarthrosis schindylesis
what are examples of a amphiarthrosis synchondrosis?
metaphysis; neuro-central joint; neural arch joint; chondrocranium, costochondral joints;first sternochondral joint
what are examples of a permanent amphiarthrosis synchondrosis?
costochondral joints; first sternochondral joint
what are the characteristics of an amphiarthrosis symphysis?
limited motion,median plane location; support ligaments both anterior and posterior to the joint; more permanent in longevity; occur between bones developing by endochondral ossification
what are the four consistent features of diarthrosis joints ?
articular or fibrous capsule,
synovial membrane, articular cartilage, synovial fluid
what are the charcterstics of the Type I mechanreceptors?
located in the superficial layer of the fibrous capsule; resemble Ruffini endings; most numerous in cervical zygapophysis; monito the joint at "rest"
what are the charcteristics of type II articular receptors?
resemble Pacinian corpusules; located in deeper strata of the fibrous capsule; most numerous in the cervical spine; monitor the joint during normal range of motion
what are the three modifications of articular synovial membrane?
synovial villi, articular fat pads, synovial menisci/ intra-articular discs