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27 Cards in this Set

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acute pain
sudden or slow onset, regardless of the intensity
chronic pain
prolonged
recurring over 6 months or longer
interferes with functioning
cutaneous
originates in the skin or subcutaneous tissue
deep somatic
arises form ligaments, tendons, bones, blood vessels, and nerves
diffuse and tends to last longer than cutaneous pain
visceral pain
results from stimulation of pain receptors in the abdominal cavity, cranium, and thorax.
appears to be diffuse and feel like deep somatic pain (burning, aching, feeling of pressure)
radiating
the source of the pain and extends to nearby tissues
referred pain
pain felt in a part of the body that is considerably removed from the tisues causing the pain
intractable
highly resistant to relief
neuropathic
result of current or past damge to the peripheral or central nervous system and may not have a stimulus
can be long last, unpleasant
described as burning, dull, and aching or have episodes of sharp, shooting pain
phantom
painful sensation perceived in a body part that is missing
pain threshold
amount of pain stimulation a person requires in order to feel the pain
aka pain sensation
hyperalgesia
excessive sensitivity to pain
pain reaction
includes the autonomic nervous system and behavioral responses to pain
autonomic - automatic reaction of the body
behavioral - learned response use to cope w/ pain
pain tolerance
the maximum amount and duration of pain that an individual is willing to endure
nociceptors
receptors that transmit pain sensation
transduction
noxious stimuli (tissue injury) trigger the release of biochemical mediators that sensitive nocicpetors

pain meds that block the production of prostaglands (ibuprofen) or decrease the movement of ions across the cell membrane (local anesthetic) can block this
transmission
transmission of pain
pain impulse travels from the peripheral nerve fibers to the spinal cord --> brain stem and thalamus --> somatic sensory cortex
can be controlled with opioids
perception
when the client becomes conscious of the pain
distraction, music, imagery works to help direct attention away from the pain
modulation
when neurons in the brain stem sends signals back down to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and can inhibits the noxious (painful) impulses from ascending.

tricyclic antidepressants are prescribed.
infant
perceives pain
responds to pain with increased sensitivity
older infant tries to avoid pain

give a glucose pacifier or use tactile stimulation
toddler and preschooler
develops the ability to describe pain adn its intensity and location

often responds with crying and anger b/c child perceives pain as a trheat to security

reasoning is not always successful

may consider pain as punishment

feels sad

may learn that there are gender differences in pain expression

distract the child w/ toys, use magic, hold the child to provide comfort, explore misconceptions about pain
school-age child
tries to be brave when facing pain
rationalizes in attempts to explain the pain
can usually identify the location and describe the pain
if persistant pain, may regress to earlier stage of development

use imagery to turn off "pain switches" provide a behavioral rehearsal of what to expect and how it will look and feel.
provide support and nurturing,
adolescent
may be slow to acknowledge pain, recognizing or "giving in" to pain is weaksauce. wants to be brave

try discussing it, give privacy, use tv or music for distraction
adult
can be gender-based behaviors learned as a child
may ignore pain because to admit it is perceived as a sign of weakness or failure
fear of what pain means may prevent some adults from taking action

deal w/ any misconception about pain, diminsh fears and anxiety if possible
elder
may have multiple conditions presenting with vague symptoms
may perceive pain as the aging process
lethargy, anorexia, and fatigue may be indicators of pain
may withhold complains of pain b/c of fear of the treatment, of any lifestyle changes that may be invovlved, or becoming dependent
may describe pain differently
may consider it unacceptable to admit or show pain

spend time with client and listen carefully
clarify misconceptions, encourage independence whenever possible.
10 point pain scale
0 - no pain
2 - mild pain
4 - moderate pain
6 - severe pain
8 - very severe pain
10 - worst possible pain
PCA
interactive method of pain management that permits clients to treat their pain by self-administering doses of analgesics.

can result in respiratory depression or hypotension