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42 Cards in this Set

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Acute pain
pain that lasts only through the expected recovery period (less than six months), whether it has a sudden or slow onset and regardless of the intensity
Agonist analgesic
full agonists which are pure opioid drugs that bind tightly to mu receptor sites, producing maximum pain inhibition, an agonist effect
Cordotomy
surgical severing which obliterates pain and temperature sensation below the level of the spinothalamic portion of the anterolateral tract severed, and is usually done for pain in the legs and trunk
Adjuvant analgesic
medication that may enhance the effects of other analgesics or have its own analgesic properties
Agonist-antagonist analgesic
mixed agonists-antagonists drugs that can act like opioids and relieve pain (agonist effect) when given to a client who has not taken any pure opioids
Chronic pain
prolonged pain, usually recurring or lasting 3 months or longer, and interferes with functioning
Cutaneous pain
pain that originates in the skin or subcutaneous tissue
Deep somatic pain
pain that arises from ligaments, tendons, bones, blood vessels, and nerves
Equianalgesia
equal analgesia, is used when referring to the doses of various opioid analgesics that provide approximately the same pain relief
Fifth vital sign
pain assessment
Hyperalgesia
extreme sensitivity to pain
Intractable pain
pain that is resistant to cure or relief
Neurectomy
surgery in which peripheral or cranial nerves are interrupted to alleviate localized pain
Neuropathic pain
the result of a disturbance of the peripheral or central nervous system that results in pain that may or may not be associated with an ongoing tissue-damaging process
Nociception
the physiologic processes related to pain perception
Nociceptor
a pain receptor
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID)
drugs that relieve pain by acting on the peripheral nerve endings to inhibit the formation of the prostaglandins that tend to sensitize nerve to painful stimuli; have analgesic, anti-pyretic, and anti-inflammatory effect; include aspirin and ibuprofen
Pain
whatever the experiencing person says it is, existing whenever he (or she) says it does
Pain reaction
the autonomic nervous system and behavioral responses to pain
Pain sensation
can be considered the same as pain threshold
Pain threshold
the amount of pain stimulation a requires before feeling pain
Pain tolerance
the maximum amount and duration of pain that an individual is willing to endure
Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)
a pain management technique that allows the client to take an active role in managing pain
Phantom pain
pain that remains after the perceived location has been removed, such as pain perceived in a foot after the leg has been amputated
Placebo
any form of treatment (e.g., medication) that produces an effect in the client because of its intent rather than its chemical or physical properties
Preemptive analgesia
the administration of analgesics prior to an invasive or operative procedure in order to treat pain before it occurs
Radiating pain
pain perceived at the source and in surrounding or nearby tissues
Referred pain
pain perceived to be in one area but whose source is another area
Rhizotomy
interruption of the anterior or posterior nerve root between the ganglion and the cord; generally performed on cervical nerve roots to alleviate pain of the head and neck
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS)
involves the insertion of a cable that allows the placement of an electrode directly on the spinal cord and is used with nonmalignant pain that has not been controlled with less invasive therapies
Sympathectomy
severence of the pathways of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system; eliminates vasospasm, improves peripheral blood supply, and is effective in treating painful vascular disorders
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)
noninvasive, nonanalgesic pain control technique that allows the client to assist in the management of acute and chronic pain
Visceral pain
results from stimulation of pain receptors in the abdominal cavity, cranium, and thora
cancer pain
pain associated with cancers; can be related or unrelated to the diseases or its treatments
somatic pain
originates in the skin, muscle, bone, or connective tissue
peripheral neurophatic pain
follows damage or sensitization of peripheral nerves (phantom limb, postherpetic neuralgia, carpal tunnel syndrome)
central neuropathic pain
results from malfunctioning nerves in the CNS
symphatetically maintained pain
occurs occaionally when abnormal connections between pain fibers and the sympathetic nervous system perpetuate problems with both the pain and sympathetically controlled functions (edema, temperature, and blood flow regulation)
hyperpathia
heightened response to a painful stimulus, hyperalgesia
dysesthesia
an unpleasant abnormal sensation that mimics the pathology of central neuropathic pain disorder, such as pain that follows a stroke or spinal cord injury
psuedoaddiction
condition that results from under treatment of pain where the client may become so focused on obtaining medication for pain relief that they become angry and demanding, "on - clock"
coanalgesic
med that is not classified as a pain medication