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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is pain?
an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage
What is subjective pain?
response to both physical and psychological stressors
What is acute pain?
-6 months or less
-due to injury, trauma, infection
-has short duration
What is Chronic Pain?
-greater tahn 6 months
-caused by cancer, arthritis, traumatic injury
What is Intractable Pain
describes pain that cannot be relieved and no effective treatment
What is the Gate Control Theory?
-pain is transmitted to spinal cord thru small fibers, when small fibers stimulated the gate opens and transmission of impulses and pain perceived
-Example: tissue damage
What is the pain Threshold?
level of intensity that causes sensation or feeling of pain
What is pain Tolerance?
amount of pain patient is willing to endure before taking action to relieve pain
What are the Sympathetic Responses?
-increased B/P, P, R
-dilated pupils
What is the Parasympathetic Responses?
-decreased B/P, P, R
-urinary retention
-constricted pupils
What are signs and symptoms of pain?
-increased B/P, P, R
-decreased mobility
-muscle tension
Assessment of Pain
-listen and clarify patient
-determine status of pain
-describe pain: location, quality, intensity, aggravating factors, relieving factors
-examine site
-identify coping mechanisms
-record assessment and evaluation
What is Referred Pain
pain experienced in location other than the source
What are some nonpharmaceutical interventions?
-comfort measures
What are some pharmacologic interventions?
-Sedative and Hypnotics:
*depress CNS
*sedatives decrease
nervousness, calm
*hypnotics induce sleep,
more potent affect on
What they do: treat insomnia and produce sedation, high potential for dependency, CNS depressant
S/S: respiratory depression, drowsiness, nausea, dizziness, confusion
Teaching: report s/e, avoid driving, do not stop abruptly, take as prescribed
Examples: Amytal, Phenobarbital
What they do: reduce anxiety, depress CNS
*most frequently used
*advantage over barbs:
S/S: drowsy, dizzy, disorientation, N/V
Antagonist: Romazicon
Examples: Dalmane, Resteril, Halcion
What they do: relieve pain for moderate to severe pain, act on receptors of CNS
S/S: decrease B/P, N/V, respiratory depression, constipation
Example: Codeine, Dilaudid, Demerol, morphine, Fentynal
What they do: NSAIDS, relieve pain, antiinflammatory
S/S: stomach irritation, cramping, increased bleeding time, heart burn
Teaching: watch patient's for bleeding and GI irritation
Examples: ASA, Tylenol, motrin, torodol, orudis
Local Anesthetics
What they do: provides skeletal muscle relaxant
post anesthesia; motor function returns before sensory function, watch for safety with no sense of feel
Exapmles: xylocaine, lidocaine
General Anesthetics
What they do: depress consciousness, acts on CNS to abolish pain perception
S/S: N/V, confusion, decreased B/P, cardiac depression, malignant hyperthermia
Post anesthesia: VS, O2 sat, T, BS, check dressing, check IV lines, safety measures, orient to environment
Example: nitrous, ethrane
Conscious Sedation
What they do: IV, awareness with loss of reflexes
Complications: respirator depression, apnea, decreased B/P
N/I: VS, O2 sat, check airway, LOC, document, watch for complications
What is important ot remember in the elderly patient with pain medications?
-decreased urinary output
-decreased liver metabolism for drugs
-decreased narcotic dose d/t increased confusion
-take longer to regain strength
-increased chronic health problems