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24 Cards in this Set

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What are the 4 major types of cellular adaptations?
Atrophy, hypertropy, hyperplasia, metaplasia
What are the general causes of cellular adaptations?
Physiologic; responses to normal processes. Pathologic; regulated response to normal signals in pathologic situations
What is atrophy?
Shrinkage in the size of a cell by loss of cell substance. Shrinkage in size of organ due to cell atrophy
What are the causes of atrophy?
Dec work load, innervation loss, diminished blood supply, inadequate nutrition, loss of endocrine stim, & aging
What are the biochemical mech of atrophy?
Dec synthesis, inc catabolism, both
What are the histologic changes of atrophy?
Dec cell size, inc autophagic vacuoles, inc residual bodies (lipofuscin)
What is hypertrophy?
In size of cells & inc size of organ. Prominent in organs w/ cells incapable of mitosis. Inc synthesis of structural proteins & nuclear DNA. Inc organelles
What are the types of hypertrophy?
Physiologic; skeletal muscle w/ exercise & uterine smooth muscle. Pathologic; myocardium in hypertension
What are the causes of hypertropy?
Inc functional demand; skeletal m. in exercise & myocardium in hypertension. Specific hormonal stim; uterus in pregnancy
What is hyperplasia?
Inc in # of cells in an organ or tissue. Often occurs w/ hypertrophy.
What are the physiologic types of hyperplasia?
Hormonal; breast during pregnancy. Compensatory; partial hepatectomy.
What are the mech of compensatory hyperplasia?
Proliferation of existing cells (eg partial hepatectomy w/ fcnal hepatocytes). Formation of new cells from stem cells (eg hepatocellular injury & cell loss). Pathologic (eg excessive hormonal/GF, response to injury/inflammation)
What is metaplasia?
A reversible change in which 1 adult cell type is replaced by another adult cell type. Genetic reprograming of stem cells (epithelial or mesenchymal)
What are the types of metaplasia?
Squamous; respiratory epi from smoking or vit A deficiency. Gastric; lower esophageal epi from chronic reflux. Mesenchymal; not clearly an adaptive response (fibroblasts transform into osteo or chrondroblasts)
What is necrosis?
Sequence or morphologic changes that follow cell death in living tissue.
What are the general mech of necrosis?
Enzymatic digestion of cell (autolysis & heterolysis) & denaturation of proteins
What are the types of necrosis?
Coagulative, liquifactive, fat, fibrinoid, & gangrenous
What is coagulative necrosis?
Immediate denaturation, preservation of structural outlines for days, charac of hypoxic cell death except in the brain
What is liquifactive necrosis?
Complete digestion of dead cells. Charac of bacterial & some fungal infections, & hypoxic death in the CNS
What is caseous necrosis?
Cheesy, white gross appearance, amorphous granular debris in a ring of granulomatous infection. Charac of tuberculous infection
What is fat necrosis?
White, chalky areas grossly. Shadowy outlines of necrotic fat cells w/ basophilic calcium deposits (saponification)- due to pancreatic lipase action.
What is fibrinoid necrosis?
Vascular lesion, hyaline appearnace in arterial media. Cause is immune mediated. Hyaline appearance is due to fibrin plus antigen/antibody complexes
What is gangrenous necrosis?
Not a specific pattern, usually refers to necrosis in a limb that loss blood supply
What are the types of gangrene?
Dry: coagulative necrosis & Wet: infection may lead to liquifactive necrosis. Maybe seen in diabetes.