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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which CN arise from the diencephelon and brainstem
CN 2 and 12
How many peripheral nerves in body
31 pairs attached to spinal chord, 8C, 12T, 5T, 5S, 1Coccygeal
Anterior(ventral) and Posterior(dorsal), sensory or motor?
Ant. motor and posterior sensory
Is the sensory fiber afferent or efferent?
Afferent (away from the peripheral)
What does gray matter contain?
aggregations of nerve cell bodies
What is a deep tendon reflex?
Muscle stretch reflexes that are relayed over structures of both the central and peripheral nervous system
What is a reflex?
Involuntary stereotypical response that may involve as few as 2 neurons, one afferent(sensory) and one efferent (motor)across a synapse
Deep tendon reflexes in arms and legs are?
Monosynaptic reflexes
To elicit a deep tendon reflex?
tap tendon of partially stretched muscle
In order for deep tendon reflex to fire what component must be intact?
Reflex arc component
What are the components of the reflex arc?
sensory nerve fibers, spinal cord synapse, motor nerve fibers, neuromuscular junction, muscle fibers
Segmental levels of deep tendon reflex in acending order from ankle to triceps
Ankle reflex= S1
Knee reflex= L2,3,4
Supinator(brachioradialis)= C5,6
Biceps= C5,6
Triceps= C6,7
Reflexes that can stimulated from stroking the skin
Abdominal reflex- upper T8,9,10 lower- T10,11,12
Plantar responses- L5,S1
3 kinds of motor pathways
Corticospinal tract, basal ganglia system, cerebellar system
Corticospinal tract
Mediate voluntary movement and integrate skill, complicated, or dedicated movements by selective muscular actions and inhibiting others. Inhibits muscle tone, originates in the motor cortex
Basal ganglia system
Maintains muscle tone, controls body movement, gross autonomic movements ex:walking
Cerebellar system
Sensory and motor input. Coordinates motor activity, maintains equilibrium, controls posture
If there is a Upper motor neuron(UMN) lesion above crossover of its tracts in the medulla
Motor impairment on the contralateral side (opposite side)
If UMN lesion below the crossover of its tracts
ipsilateral side (same side)
UMN lesions manifestations
decreased muscle tone, deep tendon reflex exaggerated
Basal ganglia damage
increase muscle tone, disturbance in posture and gait, bradykinesia, involuntary movements
Cerebrum damage
impairs coordination, gait and equilibrium, and decreased muscle tone
What do sensory impulses do?
give rise to conscious sensation, calibrate body position in space, regulate BP, HR, and respiration
2 Sensory pathways?
Spinothalamic tracts and Posterior columns
Spinothalamic tract?
Pain and temp. Crude touch-light touch without localization
Posterior columns?
Position and vibration, fine touch
What are dermatomes?
band of skin innervated by the sensory root of a single nerve
Dermatomes of front and back of neck?
C3
Dermatome of thumb, ring and little finger?
C6, C8
Dermatome of nipples, umbilicus and inguinal?
T4, T10, L1s
Dermatomes of the Knee?
L4
Dermatome of the anterior ankle and foot, and plantar foot
L5
Dermatome of the perianal region
S5
The two most common symptoms in neurologic disorders?
Headache and dizziness(see table 6-1 pg. 206-209)
Subarachnoid headache?
"worst headache of my life"
Dull headaches?
Affected by coughing, sneezing, or sudden head movements. Recurrent in same location, is seen with mass lesions like brain tumors
In what neurologic disorder is diplopia, dysarthria, and ataxia seen?
TIA's or strokes
Where do focal weakness arise from?
From ischemic, vascular, or mass lesions in the CNS,also form PNS disorders, neuromuscular disorders, and muscles
Bilateral proximal weakness in what disorder?
Myopathy
Bilateral distal weakness
Polyneuropahty
Weakness made worse with repeated effort and improved with rest suggest?
Myasthenia gravis
Paresthesias in hands and around the mouth as a result of what disorder?
Hyperventilation
Young people with emotional stress and warning symptoms of flushing, warmth, or nausea may have?
Vasodepressor (vasovagal) syncope
Cardiac syncope
More common in older patients
Tonic-clonic motor activity, bladder or bowel incontinence, and postictal state suggest?
Generalized seizure
CN I
Olfactory- sensory
Smell
CN II
Vision- sensory
CN III
Oculomotor-motor
pupillary constriction, opening of eyes, and extraocular movements
CN IV
Trochlear-motor
Downward-inward eye movement
CN V
Trigeminal-both
Motor-temporal and masseter muscles(jaw clenching), lateral movements of jaw
Sensory-opthalmic, maxillary, mandibular
CN VI
Abducens-motor
Lateral deviation of eyes
CN VII
Facial-both
Motor-facial expressions, closing of eyes and mouth
Sensory-taste on the anterior two thirds of tongue
CN VIII
Vestibulo-cochlear-sensory
Hearing and balance
CN IX
Glossopharyngeal
Motor-pharynx
Sensory-posterior portions of eardrum and ear canal and tongue, pharynx
CN X
Vagus-
Motor-palate, pharynx, larynx
Sensory-pharynx and larynx
CN XI
Accessory- motor
SCM and trapezius
CN XII
Hypoglossal-motor
tongue
Basal ganglia system
Maintains muscle tone, controls body movement, gross autonomic movements ex:walking
Cerebellar system
Sensory and motor input. Coordinates motor activity, maintains equilibrium, controls posture
If there is a Upper motor neuron(UMN) lesion above crossover of its tracts in the medulla
Motor impairment on the contralateral side (opposite side)
If UMN lesion below the crossover of its tracts
ipsilateral side (same side)
UMN lesions manifestations
decreased muscle tone, deep tendon reflex exaggerated
Basal ganglia damage
increase muscle tone, disturbance in posture and gait, bradykinesia, involuntary movements
Cerebrum damage
impairs coordination, gait and equilibrium, and decreased muscle tone
What do sensory impulses do?
give rise to conscious sensation, calibrate body position in space, regulate BP, HR, and respiration
2 Sensory pathways?
Spinothalamic tracts and Posterior columns
Spinothalamic tract?
Pain and temp. Crude touch-light touch without localization
Posterior columns?
Position and vibration, fine touch
What are dermatomes?
band of skin innervated by the sensory root of a single nerve
Dermatomes of front and back of neck?
C3
Dermatome of thumb, ring and little finger?
C6, C8
Dermatome of nipples, umbilicus and inguinal?
T4, T10, L1s