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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
language
a communication system in which words andtheir written symbols combine in rule-governed way to enable speakers to produce an infinite number of messages
communicative competence
the ability to convey thoughts, feelings, and intentions in a meaningful and culturally patterned way
productive language
the production of speech
receptive language
understanding the speech of others
phonology
the system of sounds that a language uses
phoneme
the basic unit of a language's phonetic system; phonemes are the smallest sounds units that affect meaning
semantics
the study of word meanings and word combinations, as in phrases, claues, and sentences
grammar
the structure of language; consists of morphology and syntax
morphology
the study of morphemes, language's smallest unit of meaning
morpheme
a language's smallest unit of meaning, such as a prefic, a suffix, or a root word
syntax
the part of grammar that prescribes how words may combine intro phrases, clauses, and sentences
pragmatics
a set of rules that specify appropriate language for particular social contexts
language acquisition device (LAD)
Chomsky's proposed mental struture in the human nervous system that incorporates an innate concept of language
critical period
a specific period in children's development when they are sensitive to a particular environmental stimulus that does not have the same effect on them when encountered before or after this period
language acquisition support system (LASS)
according to Bruner, a collection of strategies and tactics that environmental influences-initially, a child's parents of primary caretakers-provide the language-learning child
infant-directed, or child-directed, speech
a simplified style of speech parents use with young children, in which sentences are short, simple, and often repetative and the speaker enuciates especially clearly, slowly, and in a higher-pitched voice, often ending with a rising intonation. Also called motherese
expansion
a technique adults use in speaking to young children in which they imitate and expand or add to a child's statement
recast
a technique adults use in speaking to young children in which they render a child's incomplete sentence in a more complex grammatical form
negative evidence
according to Pinker, corrective feedback that parenst may give young language-learning children
protodeclarative
a gesture that an infanct uses to make some sort of statement about an object
protoimperative
a gesture that either an infant of a young child may use to get someone to do something she or he wants
categorical speech perception
the tendency to perceive as the same a range of sounds belonging to the same phonemic group
cooing
a very young infant's production of vowel-like sounds
babbling
an infant's production of strings of consonant-vowel combinations
patterned speech
a form of pseudospeech in which the child utters strings of phonemes that sounds very much like real speech but are not
naming explosion
the rapid increase in vocabulary that the child typically shows at about the age of 1.5
overextension
the use, by a young child, of a single wor to cover many different things
underextension
the use, by a young child, of a single word in a restricted and individualist way
holophrase
a single word that appears to represent a complete thought
telegraphic speech
two-word utterances that include only the words essential to convey the speaker's intent
overregularization
the application of a principle of regular change to a word that changes irregulary
speech acts
one or two word utterances that clearly refer to situations or to sequences of events
discourse
socially based conversation
metalinquistic awaremess
the understanding that language is a rule-bound system of communicating
phonological awareness
the understanding of the sounds of a language and of the properties, such as the number of sounds in a word, related to these sounds
bilingualism
the acquisition of two languages at the same time