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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
information-processing approaches
theories of development that focus on the flow of information through the child's cognitive system and particularly on the specific operations the child performs between input and output phases
microgenetic analysis
a very detailed examination of how a child solves a problem over a single learning episode or over several episodes that occur close in time
multistore model
a model of information processing that depicts information as moving through a series of organized processing units-sensory register, short-term memory, and long-term memory
sensory register
the mental processing unit that takes information from the environment and stores it in original form for brief periods of time
short-term, or working, memory
the mental processing unit in which info may be stored temporarily; the "work space" of the mind, where a decision must be made to discard information, work on it at present, or transer it to permanent storage in long-term memory
long-term memory
the mental processing unit in which info may be stored permanetly and from which is may later be retrieved
connectionist model
information-processing approaches that are based on the biological idea of neutral networks and that often use computer simulation; these models emphasize human cognition's different layers and networks of cognitive processing
neo-Piagetian theories
theories of cognitive development that reinterpret Piaget's concepts from an information-processing perspective
executive control structure
according to Case, a mental blueprint or plan for solving a class of problems
cognitive processes
ways that human mental system operates on information
the transformation of information from the environment into a mental representation
mental representation
information stored in some form (verbal, pictorial) in the cognitive system after the person has encountered it in the environment
conscious cognitive or behavioral activities used to enhance mental performance
the process of transforming conscious, controlled behaviors into unconscious and automatic ones
the application of a strategy learned while solving a problem in one situation to a similar problem in a new situation
executive control process
a cognitive process that serves to control, guide, and monitor the success of a problem-solving approach a child uses
the interpretation of sensations to make them meaningful
the identification and selection of particular sensory input for closer inspection and more detailed processing
enrichment view
the notion that the child aquires additional information about and object from each repeated experience with it, further modifying and enriching these data with information from existing schemata
differentiation view
the notion that the child learns to identify and discriminate among the imporant features of objects and relationships from the rich source of information sensory input provides
selective attention
a strategy in which one focuses on some features of the environment and ignores others
the deliberate organization of a sequence of actions orientated toward achieving a goal
semantic memory
all the world knowledge and facts a person possesses
episodic memory
memory for specific events, often autobiographical in nature
memory span
the amount of info one can hold in short-term memory
a memory strategy in which one repeats a number of times the information one wants to remember, either mentally or orally
a memory strategy that involves putting together in some organized form the information to be remembered; usually entails categorization and hierarchical relations
a memory strategy in which one adds to iformation to make it more meaningful and thus easier to remember
mediational deficiency
inability to use strategies to store info in long-term memory
production deficiency
inability to generate and use known memory strategies spontaneously
utilization deficiency
inability to use known memory strategy or to benefit from the use of such a memory strategy
world knowledge
what a child has learned from experiences and knows about the world in general
narrative form
a temporally sequences acount that conveys meaning about an event
autobiographical memory
a collection of memories of things that have happened to a person at a specific time or place
problem solving
the indentification of a goal and of steps to reach that goal
a mental representation of an event or situation of daily life, including the order in which things are expected to happend and how one should behave in that event or situation
cognitive map
a mental representation of the spatial layout of a physical or geographic place
dedutive reasoning
logical thinking that involves reaching a necessary and valid conclusion based on a set of premises
transitive inference
the mental arrangement of things along a quantitative dimension
propositional reasoning
logical thinking that involves evaluating a statement based on the information in the statement alone
hierarchical categorization
the organization of concepts into levels of abstraction that range from the specific to the general
the individual's knowledge about knowing and his control of cognitive activities