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31 Cards in this Set

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Hormones
chemical messangers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and developed in another
Adrenal Glands
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidney, secrets hormones epinephrine(adrenaline) and norephrine(noradrenaline) which help arouse the body in times of stress.
Pituitary Gland
The endocrinesystems most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, regulates growth and control of other endocrine glands.
Lesion
Tissue distruction, is naturally or experimentally caused distruction of brain tissue.
electroencephalogram (EEG)
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brains surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
CT (Computed Tomography) scan
a series of X-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by a computer into a composite represesntation of a slice through the body. Also called CAT scan
PET (positron emission tomography) scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a raidoactive form of glucose goes while the brain preforms a given task.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
a techique that uses magnetic fields and raido waves to produce a computer generated images that distinguish amoung different types of soft tissue.
Brainstem
the oldest part of the central core of the brian, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; responsible for automatic survival functions
Medulla
the base of the brainstem; controls heart beat and breathing.
Reticular formation
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
Thalamus
The brains sensory switchboard; located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to sensory reciving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Cerebellum
The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
Limbic systems
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and agression and drives such as for food and sex.Includes hippocampus, amyedala, and hypothalamus.
Amygdala
two almond shaped clusters that are componets of the limbic system and are linked to emotion
Hypothalamus
A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintance activities ( eating, drinking, and body temp.) helps govern the endocrine system via the pituatry gland, and is linked to emotion.
Cerebral Cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected nural cells that covers the cerberal hemispheres; the bodies ultamate control and information processing center.
glial cells
cells in the nervous system that support nourish and protect neurons.
Frontal Lobes
the portion of the cerebal cortex lying just behind the forehead. Involved in speaking and in musscle movemnts and in making plans and judgements.
Pariental lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head towards the rear.includes the sensory cortex.
occipital Lobes
the portion of the cereberal cortex lying at the back of the head;includes visual areas which receive information from the opposite visual field
Temporal lobes
the portion of the cereberal cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes auditory areas, each of which recieves auditory information primarily from the opposite ear
Motor Cortex
an area at the rear of frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.
Sensory Cortex
the area at the front of the pariental lobes that registers and processes body sensations
Association Areas
areas of the cereberal cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning rembering thinking and speaking
aphasia
imparment of language usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (imparing spaeking) or to Wernicke's area (imparing understanding)
Broca's area
controls language expression- an area of the frontal lobe usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movement involved in speech
Wernicke's area
controls language reception- a brain area involved in language comphrension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.
plasticity
The brains capacity for modification , as brain reorganization following damage (espically in children) and experiments on the effects of experience on brain development.
Corpus Callosum
THe large band of neural fibers connecting the two hemispheres and carring massage between them.
Split Brain
a condition in which two hemispheres are isolated by cutting the connection of two fibers (mainly those of Courpus Callosum) between them.