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58 Cards in this Set

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What is the function of bacterial Peptidoglycan?
Gives rigid support, protcts agains osmotic pressure.
p. 130
What is the chemical composition of bacterial peptidoglycan
Sugar backbone with cross-linked peptide side chains.
p. 130
What is the function of bacterial Cell wall/cell membrane (gram +)?
Major surface antigen
p. 130
What is the chemical composition of bacterial Cell wall/cell membrane (gram +)? What does it induce?
Teichoic acid induces TNF and IL-1
p. 130
What is the function of bacterial Outer membrane (gram -)?
Site of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide); major surface antigen
p. 130
What is the chemical composition of bacterial Outer membrane (gram -)? What does it induce? What is the antigen?
Lipid A induces TNF and IL-1; polysaccaride is the antigen.
p. 130
What is the function of bacterial Plasma membrane?
Site of oxidative and transport enzymes.
p. 130
What is the chemical composition of bacterial Plasma membrane?
Lipoprotien bilayer
p. 130
What is the function of bacterial Ribosome?
Protein synthesis
p. 130
What is the chemical composition of bacterial Ribosome?
RNA and protein in 50S and 30S subunits
p. 130
What is the function of bacterial periplasm?
Sapce between the cytoplasmic membrane and outer membrane in gram-nagative bacteria.
p. 130
What is the chemical composition of bacterial periplasm?
Contains many hydrolytic enzymes, incuding beta-lactamases.
p. 130
What is the function of bacterial capsule?
Protects agains phagocytosis
p. 130
What is the chemical composition bacterial capsule? What bacteria is the exception and how?
Polysaccharide (except Bacillus enthracis, which contains D-glutamate)
p. 130
What is the function of bacterial Pilus/fimbria
Mediates adherence of bacteria to cell surface; sex pilus forms atttachement between 2 bacteria during conjugation
p. 130
What is the chemical composition of bacterial pilus/fimbria?
Glycoprotein
p. 130
What is the function of bacterial Flagellum?
Motility
p. 130
What is the chemical composition of bacterial flagellum?
Protein
p. 130
What is the function of bacterial Spore?
Provides resistance to dehydration, heat, and chemicals.
p. 130
What is the chemical composition of bacterial spore?
keratin like coat; dipicolinic acid
p. 130
What is the function of bacterial Plasmid?
Contains a variety of genes for antibiotic resistance, enzymes, and toxins.
p. 130
What is the chemical composition of bacterial Plasmid?
DNA
p. 130
What is the function of bacterial Glycocalyx
Mediates adherence to surfaces, especially foreign surfaces (indwelling catheters).
p. 130
What is the chemical composition of bacterial flagellum?
Polysaccharide
p. 130
What part of the cell wall is unique to gram positive organisms?
Teichoic acid
p. 130
What 5 elements of bacterial cell wall and outer structures are common to both gram + and gram - bacteria?
flagella, pillus, capsule, peptigoglycan, cytoplasmic membrane.
p. 130
What part of the cell wall is unique to gram negative organisms?
Endotoxin/LPS (outer membrane)
p. 130
How do the peptidoglycan layers of gram + and - bacteria compare?
Gram positives have much thicker peptidoglycan layers than gram negatives.
p. 130
What does the lag phase represent in the bacterial growth curve?
lag - metabolic activity w/o division
p. 131
What does the log phase represent in the bacterial growth curve?
log - rapid division.
p. 131
What does the stationary phase represent in the bacterial growth curve?
stationary - nutrient depletion slows growth
p. 131
What does the death phase represent in the bacterial growth curve?
death - prolongued nutrient depletion and build up of waste products lead to death
p. 131
What are the 4 phases of the bacterial growth curve?
lag, log, stationary, death
p. 131
What is the source of EXOtoxin?
Certain species of SOME gram + and - bacteria
p. 131
What is the source of ENDOtoxin?
Cell wall of MOST gram - bacteria and LISTERIA
p. 131
What is the fate of ENDO toxin?
It is kept on the cell
p. 131
What is the fate of EXOtoxin?
It is secreted from the cell
p. 131
What is the chemistry of EXOtoxin?
Polypeptide
p. 131
What is the chemistry of ENDOtoxin?
Lipopolysaccharide
p. 131
Where is the EXOtoxin gene located?
Plasmid or bacteriophage
p. 131
Where is the ENDOtoxin gene located?
Bacterial chromosome
p. 131
What is the level of toxicity of EXOtoxin?
High (fatal dose on the order of 1 micro-gram)
p. 131
What is the level of toxicity of ENDOtoxin?
Low (fatal dose on the order of hundreds of micrograms)
p. 131
What are the 2 clinical effects of ENDOtoxin?
Fever, shock
p. 131
What is the mode of action of ENDOtoxin?
Includes TNF and IL-1
p. 131
Describe the antigenicity of EXOtoxin.
Induces high-titer antibodies called antitoxins
p. 131
Describe the antigenicity of ENDOtoxin
Poorly antigenic
p. 131
Describe the vaccine for EXOtoxin?
Toxoids used as vaccines
p. 131
Describe the vaccine for ENDOtoxin?
No toxiods formed, no vaccine available.
p. 131
What is the heat stability of EXOtoxin? What is the exception?
Destroyed rapidly at 60C (except staphylococcal enterotoxin)
p. 131
What is the heat stability of ENDOtoxin?
Stable at 100C for 1hour.
p. 131
Name 3 disease that have EXOtoxins.
Tetanus, botulism, diphtheria
p. 131
Name 2 disease that have ENDOtoxins
Meningococcemia, sepsis by gram - rods
p. 131
What type of exotoxins bind directly to MHC II and T-cell receptor, activating large numbers of T cells to stimulate release of IL-1 and IL-2?
Superantigens
p. 132
What is the mechanism of action of superantigens?
Bind directly to MHC II and T-cell receptor, activating large numbers of T cells to stimulate release of IL-1 and IL-2?
p. 132
Name 2 bacteria that release exotoxins that are superantigens?
S. aureus and S. pyogenes
p. 132
What are the 2 enterotoxins of S. aureus and what are their effects?
1. TSST-1 causes toxic shock syndrome (fever, rash, shock). 2. Enterotoxins cause food poisoning.
p. 132
What is the enterotoxin of S. pyogenes adn what does it cause?
Secarlet fever - strain SPE toxin causes toxic shock-like syndrome.
p. 132