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63 Cards in this Set

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The two (2) sources of variation in behavioral phenotypes?
Genetic variation: heritability

Environmental variation: environmentiality
Heritability is calculated by...
2*(MZ-DZ)
Environmentability is calculated by...
1 - heritability
Heritability will be HIGH/LOW with HIGH/LOW environmental variation
Heritability will be HIGH with LOW environmental variaton, and LOW with HIGH environmental variation
MZ twins are SIMILAR via...
*Genes
*Inter-uterine environment (some)
*Age
*Shared environment (home, family structure, rearing, economics, nutrition)
MZ twins are DIFFERENT via...
Non-shared environment: separate friends, activities, independent exercises, etc.
The big 5 personality traits are...
1) Neuroticism
2) Extraversion
3) Openness
4) Agreeableness
5) Conscientiousness
A shared (i.e., common) environment usually consists of...
*Home
*Family structure
*Rearing
*Economics
*Nutrition
A non-shared environment usually consists of...
*Separate friends
*Activities
*Independent exercises
*Etc.
The genetic, shared-environmental influence, and non-shared environmental influence on attitudes is...
65% genetic
0% shared-environment
35% non-shared environment
The trend in genetic and non-shared environment on religiosity is that...
Genetic influences INCREASE and shared envrionment influences DECREASE as one gets older
Subjective Well Being (SWB) is positively correlated with
Extroversion.
Subjective Well Being (SWB) is negatively correlated with
Neuroticism
How are personality traits and Subjective Well Being (SWB) related?
They remain stable over time and predict life satisfaction years later; predicts a "happiness set point"
Heritability of the happiness set point is [HIGH/LOW]...
Very high: 0.55 correlation for self 9 years later, 0.54 correlation for MZ twins 9 years later (0.05 for DZ twins).
Lykken's "epicure of experience" concept says...
That your happiness set-point is like a standing water-level, where you're a boat on a lake. If you have a low set-point, learn to "make waves!"
The Three Laws of Behavior Genetics are...
1) All human behavior has a heritable component

2) The effect of being raised in the same family is smaller than the effect of genes (but this does not mean that family is irrelevant: shared environmental opportunities lead to non-shared environmental opportunities)

3) A substantial part of the variance in complex human traits is not accounted for by effects of genes or families
US/UR/CS/CR? (Definitions and effects.)
US: Unconditioned Stimulus
CS: Conditioned Stimulus

UR: Unconditioned Response
CR: Conditioned Response

US --> UR
CS (then) US --> UR
CS --> CR
What did Pavlov do with his dogs?
Sound a tone to make them salivate (started when they salivated at the sound of him coming to bring them the food).
What is classical extinction?
NEW LEARNING where the animal learns that CS does not lead to US
What is spontaneous recovery?
When CR sometimes returns spontaneously if not retested for a while, but will re-disappear more quickly
What is higher-order conditioning?
CS1 --> CR1
CS2 (then) CS1 --> CR1
CS2 --> CR2
What were the "puzzle-box" experiments, and who did them?
E.L. Thorndike had the cat try to figure out how to get out of the box.
Thorndike's Law of Effect
Responses followed by pleasurable outcomes will be strengthened. The more pleasurable the outcome, the greater the strengthening.
What was radical behaviorism, and who was responsible for it?
B.F. Skinner's radical behaviorism was "black-box" behaviorism.
What is Functional Analysis?
Functional analysis only looks at antecedents and consequences.
What is Operant Conditioning, and what are other names for it?
Operant, Respondent, Instrumental, Skinnerian conditioning:

The modification of an organism’s behavior over time by the consequences produced by that behavior
What are reinforcement and punishment?
Reinforcement increases a behavior; punishment decreases a behavior.
What is operant extinction?
A response being maintained by reinforcement will weaken over time if there’s no more reinforcement.
What are the different reinforcement schedules, and what are their resistances to extinction?
Continuous reinforcement has faster learning

Partial / intermittent reinforcement is more resistant to extinction
What types of partial/intermittent reinforcement are there?
*Fixed-ratio
*Variable-ratio
*Fixed-interval
*Variable-interval
What is a phobia?
Exaggerated, persistent, irrational fear of an object/situation/etc which leads to behavior designed to escape/avoid object or situation
Name five common types of phobias:
1. Public speaking (& other social situations)
2. Snakes! Spiders! Insects! Mice! Small animals!
3. Storms! Heights! Large bodies of water!
4. Environmental/situational – Small enclosed spaces. Vast expanses, bridges, tunnels, flying
5. Blood, injury, injections
What is the two-factor theory of phobia?
Classical conditioning forms the phobia, while operant conditioning forms the escape/avoidance
What are three caveats of the two-factor theory of phobia?
* Evidence of traumatic conditioning rarely found in histories of people w/various phobias (e.g., fear of spiders)

* Many traumatic associations produce no conditioning!

* Conditioned fears easy to produce in lab, but generally weak, easily extinguished, and subject to conscious control (in contrast, phobias exist)
What are three modifications made to the two-factor theory of phobia?
1) Vicarious conditioning
2) Informational acquisition
3) Latent inhibition
What is vicarious conditioning?
Conditioning through observation
What is informational acquisition?
"mom's worried, so I should be worried, too"
What is latent inhibition?
Immunization; e.g., very used to dogs, one bad dog who snarls at you might not effect your already positive viewpoint
What is preparedness theory?
The theory that some fears are biological/evolutionary.
Why did preparedness theory come about?
To answer the question, "why are phobias largely restricted to a select group of stimuli?"
Briefly describe Arne Öhman’s Differential Electrodermal Conditioning Paradigm. (Procedure and results.)
Prepared vs. unprepared stimuli.

Acquisition wasn't any better, but extinction was slower for prepared stimuli.
In Arne Öhman’s Differential Electrodermal Conditioning Paradigm, what was a CS+ and what was a CS-?
CS+ was shocked; CS- wasn't.
What is backward masking, and what's its significance?
Showing spider really quickly, then showing mask: study showed easier acquisition to prepared thing behnid mask than unprepared thing (when coupled with a shock).
What is an example of non-conscious conditoning?
Backwards masking.
Briefly describe Cook & Mineka's 1989 study w/monkeys.
Monkeys grown in lab acquired fear of snakes/toy snakes/crocs, but not of flowers/bunnies!
What was Hans Eysenck's attatck on psychotherapy?
Looked through insurance records, found no evidence that psychotherapy had a success rate any better than lack of treatment.
What is spontaneous remission?
Disappearance of a problem without treatment.
What are the three assignment categories of psychotherapy outcome research?
Randomly assigned to a particular group (therapy, wait-list, placebo)
What are the four forms of evaluation for psychotherapy research?
Self-report
Therapist ratings
Physiological measures
Observational measures
What is a wait-list control group?
The control tested for no therapy, being told they'll receive some soon.
Describe Gordon L. Paul's 1966 insight v. desensitization study (procedures).
Tested insight, systematic desensitization, placebo, and waitlist.
Describe Gordon L. Paul's 1966 insight v. desensitization study (results).
Systematic desensitization was always better than placebo and insight, which were always similar.
What did Gene V. Glass come up with?
Meta-analysis.
What's the concept of meta-analysis?
CONCEPT:

Put all the measures of improvement on the same metric by expressing them in Standard Deviations of the control group!
What's the equation for meta-analysis?
EQUATION:

[Mtreated – Mcontrol] / [SDcontrol] = d (effect size)
What's a "box-score literature review?"
This is where you choose which studies to count based on your own, biased definition of "scientific rigor," et cetera.
What does the "effect size" ( = d ) for meta-analysis represent?
The weighted average of treatment effects in units of standard deviation
What were the findings of Smith & Glass's 1977 & 1980 meta-analyses?
1977: d = 0.68
1980: d = 0.85
What is the Dodo Bird's verdict?
All psychotherapies are equally effective as they all share common factors: "Everybody has won, and all must have prizes!"
How did Wampold's 1997 study address the Dodo Bird's Verdict?
Only reviewed studies that compared two or more bona fide treatments
What did Wampold's 1997 study find?
That the Dodo Bird was right; effect size between directly-compared therapies was 0.00 - 0.21
What are Jerome Frank's four "common factors in healing traditions"?
* Emotionally charged, confiding relationship
* Healing setting
* Rationale, conceptual scheme, or myth that's a plausible explanation for a sufferer's problem
* Ritual that both parties are actively involved in and that both believe will help the patient