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12 Cards in this Set

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middle class reformers
most did not want to get involved in politics, however many worried that they had to to protect morality of american life

ex. Francis Willard and Women's Christian Temperance Union

considered herself a christian socialist, wanted to reduce inequalities of wealth

HOWEVER: for most Gilded Age Americans, Christianity was seen to support competitve individualistic ethic, "Gods will that some men should attain great wealth."
the Gospel of Wealth
Carnegie believed that wealth was good and christian, and that it was the only way to lead people through the tumult of industrializationl, and that the rich must spend some of their wealth on poorer brethren

carnegie had many philoranthipic aspirations, build libraries and such
Social Darwinism
"the gospel of wealth" , Carnigie

Herbert Spencer applied "survival of fittest" to humans
when he came to NY, people loved him, because he justified the enormous fortunes they had ammassed

to take money away from them is like "like killing off our generals in war....absured....to allow the worst in society to sit down with pencil and plan new social world order."

social darwinists believed in racial superiority of white protestants
Reform Darwinism (and Pragmatism)
Brook Adams argued that Spencer and Sumner (social darwinist guys) had been "hired by the comfortable classes to prove that everything was all right."

this movement had roots in temperance, trancendentalists,...

Emersonian Trancendentalist Sandborn founded American Social Science Association, to research society

Henry George observed "whereever the highest degree of "material progreess" had beeen realized, "we find the deepest posvery." wrote POVERTY AND PROGRESS

George appleaed to many middle class

Lester Frank Ward and economist Richard T. Ely proved that competition and laissez=faire have proved wasteful and hinhumane.

overall, movement wanted cooperation and regulation
Settlements
Jane Addams: founds Hull House Of Chicago, for pour people, in 1889, seeing the unfortunate affects of moderizaton

Vida Scudder: her an 6 other Smith grads start settlement houses.Denison House, Boston

influenced by English middleclass reformers, Karl Marx, Leo TOlstoy, Victor Hugo, Emerson, WHitman, George, and Bellamy, and Jesus

idealistic, ethical, christian

offered classes, houses, everything

ALSO: to give female college grads a start in the world with somewhere to live

Dual: gather facts, be spiritual
Social Gospel
Dwight Moody preaches tradhitional christianity

tied salvation to social betterment

Rauschenbusch: publishes welfare state books: Christianity and the Scoial Chrisis, and Christianizaing the Social Order

Charles Sheldon, In His Steps
reforming the city
city governments were really bad, really corrupt

very dirty cities, almost as bad as Europe

they cleaned things up, build pipelines, parks, libraries etc

but clean up efforts didnt reach the slums, they only helped rich

BOSSEs

middle-classers hated bosesss, were called "goo goos"

Urban middle=class reformers wanted protestants to be governers, not be corrupt, mnay were elitist.
not all though, some hated bossism but advocated political participation

Samuel Jones: welsh immigrant who rose up, the "Golden Rule Man." he had facotry, gave everyone better wages, 8 hour days, cheap food, park....because elected mayor 4 times in a row
The Progressive Movement in a Global Context
Americans were far behind when it came to regulating hours and wages, creating pensions, , insurance etc...

USA had "feeblest, least-accesible and most inefficient gov in world."
Progressives
Progressives were first modern reformists. sought ot bring order and efficiency to a world that had been transformed by rapid growth. very statistics minded, like European colleagues.

ASked: What is the proper relation of Government to society? Is a world of large corporations, huge cities, and massive transportaiton systes, how much should the government regulate and control?
The Muckrakers
Wriers who exposed corruption and other social evils, labeled so by THeodore Roosevelt. -not all reformers, some wrote just for money. part of journalistic revolution of 1890s

Ira Tarbell- reavealed Standard Oil

David Graham Phillips uncoveed the alliance of politis and busieness
Child labor
lots of it, 8 or 9 years old

Florence Kelley, big leader against child labor. crazy laddy from philly who went to Europe and came back a socialist bitch

Became president of National Consumers Leguae, to protect conditions for workers
National Child Labor Commitee
Headed by Murphy, drew up a model state child labor law, encouraged state and city campaigns, and coordinated the movement around the country.