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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Air we breathe is a gaseous mixture consisting mainly of:
mainly of N2 78.62% ,
O2 20.84% ,
w/traces CO2 0.04% ,
H2O 0.05% &
helium & argon
Atmospheric pressure @ sea level
is about 760mmHg
Partial pressure is the
pressure exerted by each type of gas in a mixture of gases.
The partial pressure of a gas is proportional to the contentration of that gas in a mixture.
The total pressure excreted by the gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures.
The partial pressure of Nitrogen
79% of 760 =
0.79 x 760 = 600mmHg
The partial pressure of Oxygen is
21% of 760 =
0.21 x 760 = 160mmHg
P= pressure

PO2= partial pressure of O2
PCO2= partial pressure of carbon dioxide

PAO2= Partial pressure of alveolar O2

PACO2= partial pressure of alveolar carbon dioxide

PaO2= Partial pressure of artial O2

PaCO2= Partial pressure of artial carbon dioxide

PVO2= Partial pressure of venous O2

PVCO2= Partial pressure of Venous Carbon Dioxide

P50= partial pressure of O2 when the Hbg is 50% saturated
upper airway structures
-NOSE (passageway for air to and from the lungs)


-SINUSES (common site of infection)

-NASAL PASSAGES(catches dust & organisms in the inhaled air)

-PHARYNX (Passageway for respiratory & digestive tract)

-TONSILS & ADENOIDS(guards body from invasion organisms entering the nose & throat)

-LARYNX(protects lower airway from foreign substances & facilitates coughing)

-TRACHEA (passageway between larnyx & bronchi)
lower respiratory tract

bronchial &
alveolar structures
needed for gas exchange
the flow of gas in and out of lungs
normally requires ENERGY; when the capacity of the chest is increased, air enters through the trachea
normally is PASSIVE; when the capacity of the chest wall is decreased, the lungs recoil and force the air out through the bronchi and trachea
visceral pleural
covers the lungs
parietal plueral
lines the thorax
pleural fluid
lubricates the thorax and lungs & permits smooth motion of the lungs w/in the thoracic cavity w/ each breath.
Lung (lobes)
right(3 lobes)
left (2 lobes)
Lobar Bronchi (w/in each lobe)

are the structures identified when choosing the most effective postural drainage position for a given patient.
submucosal glands & cilia (surrounds the bronchi & bronchioles)
the bronchioles contain submucosal glands, which produce mucus that covers the inside lining of the airways.
Also lined w/ cells that have surfaces covered w/ cilia.
creates a whipping motion that propels mucus and foriegn matter away from the lungs towards the larnyx
right mainstream bronchus
more evenly aligned w/ the trachea, making it more common passage for aspirated contents dislocated endotracheal tubes
terminal bronchioles(gas exchange airways)
have a semi-permeable membrane and participate in gas exchange
lower area of lung
top portion of lung