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28 Cards in this Set

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What are the two reasons that there is a gradient present?
1) membrane potential from the charge difference
2) pH gradient from the H+ concentration difference
how are electrons allowed to flow back into the matrix?
through ATP Synthase, which forms ATP in the process
what is the P/O a measure of?
The number of high energy phosphate bonds formed (ATP formed)
What is commonly used as a measure of Phosphorylation Efficiency?
P/O Ratio
What is the P/O Upper Llimit for NADH?
2.5
What is the P/O Upper Limit for FADH2?
1.5
Where is the pH lower?
outside the matrix
Where is the pH higher?
inside the matrix
where is there more H+?
outside the matrix
where is there less H+?
inside the matrix
where is the membrane potential higher?
more positive on the outside by 1.4V
what is a measure of how well the mitochondria is working
Respiratory Control Index (RCI)
What is present in a perfect "working mitochondria"
NADH, O2, no membrane damage, no poisons
what do the flat lines on the graph mean?
that electron flow has stopped
equation for RCI
RCI = slope a (working mitochondria)/
slope b (resting mitochondria)
what needs to be added when electron flow stops to deplete the proton gradient?
ADP
what is the mitochondrial electron flow uncoupler?
Dinitrophenol (DNP)
How does DNP work?
destroys the H+ gradient...brings protons back into the matrix as they are ejected by electron transport.
What happens when you add ADP after DNP?
Nothing because it can't use the proton gradient
what is the inhibitor of ATP Synthase?
Oligomycin
what causes the conformational change in ATP Synthase?
the proton flux
Where does ATP synthesis occur?
in the matrix
What is BAT?
Brown Adipose Tissue
what proteins does BAT contain?
Uncoupling Protein 1
Thermogenin
what is the function of Uncoupling Protein 1
allows protons to re-enter the matrix without making any ATP- energy is released as HEAT
does BAT have a low or high RCI?
LOW!
obese people have high or low levels of BAT?
low levels
what is BAT stimulated by?
Cold and Over-eating