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41 Cards in this Set

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When alkane goes to an alkene, what is the enzyme that is oxidize and reduced?
FAD (oxidized) and FADH2 (reduced)
When an alkane goes to an alkene, what is the enzyme that is oxidize/reduced?
FAD (oxidized) and FADH2(reduced)
Another name for oxidation?
DeHYDROGENation (NOT dehydration)
If you add water to an alkene what is produced?
Primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols
Primary alcohol can be oxidized to what? With what enzyme?
Aldehyde and Carboxylic acid with NAD+ to NADH + H+
Secondary alcohols can be oxidized to?
Ketones (acetone) and it cannot be further oxidized
Which of the molecules studied had the same oxidation state? Which can be isomerized?
1. Primary alcohol, alkene, and secondary alcohol
2. Aldehyde and Ketone, can be isomerized
What is the reducing power not used in the Electron Transport Chain, but instead used in synthetic (anabolic) reactions?
NADP+ to NADPH + H+
Why do fats give more ATP than sugars?
Fats have longer C-C chains and therefore need more steps to get C's oxidized. On the other hand, glucose has only 6 C and therefore it is much easier to get oxidized.
List the molecules that can be produced from oxidation of Alkane.
Alkane--> Primary Alcohol--> Aldehyde-->Carboxylic Acid
The suffix -ic and -ate stand for?
-ic refers to an acid
-ate refers to a deprotonated acid anion
What is a fully oxidized molecule?
Carbon Dioxide
How are hydrocarbons oxidized?
Via FAD which removes 2 H
How are alcohols and aldehydes oxidized?
Via NAD+ which removes 1 H
How is oxygen added? Via what molecule?
H20 not molecular oxygen
How can molecules decarboxylate to get rid of fully oxidized carbons?
By rearranging to produce alpha or beta keto acids
Which molecule is stable and does not decarboxylate?
Hydrocarbon carboxyl- where there is no alpha-keto carboxyl or beta-keto carboxyl
Which molecule is stable and can be decarboxylated with an enzyme?
Alpha-keto carboxyl
Which molecule is unstable and can spontaneously decarboxylate?
Beta-keto carboxyl
What are the 6 function classification groups of enzymes?
1. Oxido-reductases
2. Transferases
3. Hydrolases
4. Lyases
5. Isomerases
6. Ligases
Enzymes require what, which acts as a donor or acceptor of the electrons
A coenzyme
Transferases
Transfer a functional group from one compound to another compound
Hydrolases
Break bonds by the addition of water
Dehydrolases
Remove water from a compound
Lyases
Breaks bonds (without the addition of water), form double bonds
Isomerases
Catalyzes the formation of isomers of a compound
Isomers=same # of atoms and bonds, but different configuration
Ligases
Makes bonds using energy (ATP)
What are the 2 enzymes that can make big molecules (make bonds)?
Transferases and Ligases
What are the 2 enzymes that can break bonds?
Hydrolases and Lyases
How are Anabolic (Synthetic) reactions named?
1. Name product
2. Followed by:
a. Synthase: no energy (transferase)
b. Synthetase: require energy (ligase)
How are Catabolic (breakdown) reactions named?
1. Name reactant
2. Followed by type of reaction
How are Catabolic oxido-reductase enzymes (redox) enzymes named?
1. Name reduced molecule
2. Followed by dehydrogenase
(If molecule oxygen used, then oxidase instead)
How are Synthetic redox reactions named?
1. Name oxidized molecule
2. Followed by reductase
How are Kinases named?
-Classified transferase
-transfer P grps to/from ATP
-named for molecule ACCEPTING P grp (ATP always donor)
If ATP is donating P grp, how is it named?
1. Name substrate (acceptor of P grp)
2. Followed by Kinase
If ATP is a product of a reaction, how is it named?
1. Name product (acceptor of P grp from ATP if reaction ran in reverse)
2. Followed by kinase
Transaminases
Transfer amino grps
Classified: transferase
Phosphatases
Hydrolyze off phosphate grps
Classified: hydrolase
Phosphorylases
Put phosphate groups on
Classified as transferase
Mutases
Isomerases that catalyze the INTRAmolecular rearrangement of functional grps
How are hydrolase enzymes named?
1. Name reactant
2. Attach -ase ending
Digestive enzymes are hdyrolases