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47 Cards in this Set

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What is an action potential?
An event that alters the membrane potential
Action potential is also known as an _________________ ________
All or nothing principle
Describe the steps involved in Depolorization.
Neurotransmitter binds with receptor and opens ligand gated channels,Na+ flows into cell changing the membrane potential -70mV, Adding + molecules, increases to -50mV
-55mV is the threshold, once reached voltage gated channels open, Na+ rush in, changes charge to +30mV
Describe repolarization.
Na+ gates close, K+ gates open, K+ rush out of cell, Cell returns to - charge
Describe hyperpolarization.
Permeability of K+ last longer than needed to return to the resting membrane potential, results in an undershoot to about -85mV, makes it more difficult to reach the threshold -55mV
Define refactory period.
Absolute refractory period
Neuron cannot respond to another stimulus no matter how strong
Relative refractory period follows absolute refractory periodand the neuton can respond to an especially strong impulse.
Name the two types of conduction
Saltatory conduction - impulses that appear to leap from node to node
Continuous conduction - step by step depolarization of each adjacent area of the axon
name two factors that would affect the speed of a nerve impulse.
Diameter of the Axon
Myelinated axons are faster
(saltatory conduction)
What are the 4 structural classification of neurons?
1. # of processes found on cell
2.Multipolar neurons
3.Bipolar neurons
4.Unipolar neurons
Define a multipolar neurons.
several dendrites and one axon
( most common type )
Describe a Bipolar neuron.
one main dendrite and one axon.
Name the 8 structures covering of the Spinal Cord.
1. vertebrae
2. Epideral space (fat filled)
3. Dura mater(tough mother)
4. Subdural space (filled w/Innerstitial fluid)
5. Arachnoid (spider web of collagen)
6.Subarachnoid (filled w/CSF)
7. Pia mater(soft mother)
8. Denticulate ligaments (anchor)
Name the 6 components of the Spinal Cord.
1. 16-18 inches in length 3/4 inch in diameter
2. adult ends at the L2 vertebrae
3.newborn ends at L4 vertebrae
4.growth stops at age 5
5.Cervical enlargement (upper limbs)
6.Lumbar enlargement (lower limbs)
Name the 4 Inferior parts of the Spinal Cord.
1. Conus medularis(cone shaped end)
2. Filum terminale(threadlike extensions of pia mater)
3. Caudae equina(horses tail dorsal & ventral roots of lowest spinal nerves)
4.Spinal Segments(area of cord from which each pair of wpinal nerves arises
How do spinal nerves begin?
as roots
Incoming sensory fibers enter the _______or ______root.
Dorsal or posterior
_______or +_______ root is the outgoing motor fibers.
ventral or anterior
Gray matter of the spinal cord is shaped like a butterfly.
True
_______ of the spinal cord contains neuron cell bodies, unmyelinated axons and dendrites.
Gray matter
Dorsal and ventral gray horns are located in the _______
Gray matter of the spinal cord.
Central canal is continuous with the __________ ventrical of the brain.
4 th
White matter is divided into ______ and _________.
tracts and columns
The three tracts of the white matter are.
Ascending
Descending
Transversly
Spinocerebellar, spinothalamic are parts of the _________ spinal cord.
Ascending tracts
Corticospinal and reticulospinal are parts of the __________ spinal cord.
Descending tracts
Colums of the spinal cord are also known as what?
groups of tracts
Spinal nerves have two kinds of neurons.
sensory and motor
The covering of the individual nerve endings is called.
Endoneurium
Covers fasicles of the axon.
Perneurium
Covering of the entire nerve.
Epineurium
The first branch of the sponal nerve which supplies the back and intercostal muscles.
Rami
Spinal nerves are named from the segment of the spinal cord from which they emerge. T or F
True
Cranial nerves exit from the ________.
brain
There are 8 pairs of cervical nerves name them.
C1-C2-C3-C4-C5-C6-C7-C8
There are 12 pairs of thoracic nerves, name them.
T1-T2-T3-T4-T5-T6-T7-T8-T9-T10-T11-T12
Name the 5 pairs of Lumbar nerves.
L1-L2-L3-L4-L5
Name the 5 pairs of Sacral nerves.
S1-S2-S3-S4-S5
How many coccygeal nerves are there?
one pair
Area of skin supplied by one spinal nerve is called a __________'
Dermatome
Damaged are of spinal cord can be distinguished by patterns of numbness over a ___________ region.
Dermatome
Name the 4 networks of the Plexus.
Cervical, Brachial, Lumbar,Sacral
The spinal nerves that supply the skin, muscles of the head, neck upper shoulders and chest.
Cervical Plexus
The spinal nerve that provides entire nerve supply for the shoulders and upper limbs.
Brachial Plexus
The spinal nerve that supplies the anteoateral abdominal wall and part of the lower limbs.
Lumbar Plexus
The nerve that supplies the buttocks, perinium, and the lower limbs. Also, the sciatic nerve * largest nerve in the body.
Sacral Plexus
Automatic response to change in the environment.
Spinal Reflexes
Integration center for the spinal reflexes is _______ matter of spinal cord.
gray