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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Functions of the GI Tract
Ingestion and propulsion of food
Digestion - physical and chemical breakdown of food (in sm. intestine)
Absorption - transfer of end prod. of digestion across the intestinal wall to circulation
Excretion - defecation is a reflex action involving both voluntary and involuntary control
GI System
Mouth
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Large intestine
Rectum, anus
Accessory Organs
Salivary glands
Liver
Gallbladder
Pancreas
Layers of Tissue
From lower 1/3 of esophagus to rectum:
Mucosa-surface layer of epithelium, rich in blood and lymphatic vessels, secretes enzymes and mucous
Submucosa-rich in blood and lymphatic vessels
Layers of Tissue
Muscularis - two layers of muscle, one way contractions=peristalsis
Serosa - outermost layer formed by the peritoneum
Secretory cells of stomach
Chief cells - secrete pepsinogen which converts to pepsin to help break down food and increase acid
Parietal cells - secrete HCL, H2O, and intrinsic factor
Secretory cells of stomach
HCL protects against ingested organisms and intrinsic factor promotes absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine
Effects of Aging
Mouth-decreased taste buds, gums, dentition, dry mouth from SE of meds, disease
Esophagus - decreased tone and motility
Stomach - decreased HCL, reflux, food intolerance, delayed emptying
Effects of Aging
Intestines - slower motility d/t decreased activity, SE of meds, laxative abuse
Liver - decreased size and lower in position
Large intestine, Rectum and Anus - decreased tone
Assessment
Past health history
Current medications
Previous surgery or other treatments
Health perception
Nutritional-metabolic pattern
Elimination pattern
Assessment of Patterns
Activity-exercise
Sleep-rest
Cognitive-perceptual
Self-concept
Role-relationship
Sexuality-reproductive
Coping-stress
Value-belief
Assessment (Physical Exam)
Inspection mouth, abdomen, rectum
Auscultation abdomen-4 quadrants 1-2 min.
Percussion abdomen - 4 quadrants
Palpation abdomen - 4 quadrants
Prevention (know this slide!)
Annual physical
AGE 40 (ACS recommendations)
Fecal Occult Blood annually
DRE annually
Prevention (know this slide!)
AGE 50
Sigmoidoscopy every 5 years
Colonoscopy every 10 years
Barium enema every 5 years
More frequent testing if high risk
Diagnostic Studies
Description and Nursing Responsibilities
See Handout
Nursing Diagnosis
*Potential risk for Aspiration
*Potential for Altered Nutrition
*Potential Constipation actual or perceived
*Potential Diarrhea
Plan and Implement
*Reduce risk factors: meds, diet, activity, etc.
*Teach prevention and early detection: follow ACS guidelines
*Teach nutritional considerations
Evaluation
*Outcomes for teaching
*Outcomes for screening
*Outcomes for reduction of risk