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QUESTION
ANSWER
CULTURE?
IS A PEOPLE WAY OF LIFE THAT IS PASSED ON FROM ONE GENERATION TO GENERATION.
SOCIETY?
IS A GROUP OF PEOPLE LIVING IN A DEFINED TERRITORY AND PARTICIPATING IN A COMMON CULTURE.
WHAT 3 PARTS DO THE SOCIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION CONSIST OF?
NORMATIVE(1); COGNITIVE(2); & (3)MATERIAL.
NORMATIVE?
STANDARDS FOR BEHAVIOR.
COGNITIVE?
KNOWLEDGE AND BELIEFS.
MATERIAL?
TANGIBLE OBJECTS.
DEFINE NORMS?
RULES DEFINING APPROPRIATE AND INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR.
WHAT ARE 3 PRIMARY TYPICAL NORMS?
FOLKWAYS(1); MORES(2); & (3)LAWS.
FOLKWAYS?
RULES THAT COVER CUSTOMARY WAYS OF THINKING; FEELING; AND BEHAVING BUT LACK MORAL OVERTONES ARE CALLED FOLKWAYS.
MORES?
ARE NORMS OF GREAT MORAL SIGNIFICANCE.
TABOO?
IS VIEWED SO IMPORTANT THAT TO VIOLATE IT IS CONSIDERED REPUGNANT.
LAWS?
THE THIRD TYPE OF NORM THAT ARE FORMALLY DEFINED AND REINFORCED BY OFFICIALS.
SANCTIONS?
ARE REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS USED TO ENCOURAGE CONFORMITY TO NORMS.
FORMAL SANCTION?
ARE SANCTIONS THAT MAY BE GIVEN ONLY BY OFFICIALLY DESIGNATED PERSONS; SUCH AS JUDGES AND COLLEGE PROFESSORS.
INFORMAL SANCTIONS?
ARE SANCTIONS THAT CAN BE APPLIED BY MOST MEMBERS OF A GROUP. THEY TOO CAN BE POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE.
VALUES?
ARE BROAD CULTURAL PRINCIPLES THAT MOST PEOPLE IN A SOCIETY CONSIDER DESIRABLE.
WHY ARE VALUES IMPORTANT?
VALUES ARE IMPORTANT BECAUSE THEY HAVE A TREMENDOUS INFLUENCE ON HUMAN SOCIAL BEHAVIOR; NORMS ARE BASED ON THEM.
EXAMPLE OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF VALUE?
IN AMERICA THE VALUE OF FREEDOM AFFECTS MORE THAN A PERSONS POLITICAL LIFE; IT AFFECTS SUCH DIVERSE AREAS AS RELATIONSHIPS IN THE FAMILY; TREATMENT WITHIN THE LEGAL SYSTEM; THE OPERATION OF ORGANIZATIONS; AND THE CHOICE OF RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION.
LIST SOME EXAMPLES OF WHAT VALUES INCLUDE?
THEY INCLUDE ACHIEVEMENT; SUCCESS; ACTIVITY & WORK; HUMANITARIANISM; EFFICIENCY & PRACTICALITY; PROGRESS; MATERIAL COMFORT; EQUALITY; FREEDOM; DEMOCRACY; INDIVIDUALITY; SCIENCE & RATIONALITY; EXTERNAL CONFORMITY; GROUP SUPERIORITY(RACIAL; ETHIC; RELIGIOUS); MORALITY & PATRIOTISM.
COGNITION?
IS THE PROCESS OF THINKING; KNOWING; OR PROCESSING INFORMATION.
BELIEFS?
THE MOST IMPORTANT ASPECT OF THE COGNITIVE DIMENSION OF CULTURE WHICH IS THE IDEAS CONCERNING THE NATURE OF REALITY.
MATERIAL CULTURE?
CONSISTS OF CONCRETE TANGIBLE OBJECTS WITHIN A CULTURE.
LIST SOME EXAMPLES OF MATERIAL CULTURE?
EXPENSIVE CARS & ART ARE TWO GREAT EXAMPLES THAT HAVE NO MEANING OR USE APART FROM THE MEANINGS PEOPLE GIVE THEM.
IDEAL CULTURE?
REFERS TO CULTURAL GUIDELINES PUBLICLY EMBRACED BY MEMBERS OF A SOCIETY; THESE ARE THE GUIDELINES WE CLAIM TO ACCEPT.
REAL CULTURE?
REFERS TO ACTUAL BEHAVIOR PATTERNS. SOMETIMES SUBTERRANEAN REAL CULTURAL PATTERNS ARE PUBLICLY DENIED BECAUSE THEY CONFLICT WITH IDEAL CULTURE.
DEFINE CULTURE IN GENERAL?
CULTURE IS THE SOCIAL HERITAGE OF HUMANS. THIS HERITAGE IS ALTERED BY EACH GENERATION AND MUST BE LEARNED BY NEW MEMBERS OF A SOCIETY.
SYMBOLS?
THINGS THAT STAND FOR; OR REPRESENT; SOMETHING ELSE CAN RANGE FROM PHYSICAL OBJECTS TO WORDS; SOUNDS; SMELLS; AND TASTES.
GESTURES?
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS; BODY MOVEMENT OR POSTURE; WHICH ALSO CARRY CULTURALLY DEFINED AND SHARED SYMBOLIC MEANINGS.
HYPOTHESIS OF LINGUISTIC RELATIVITY?
OUR PERCEPTION OF REALITY IS AT THE MERCY OF THE WORDS AND GRAMMATICAL RULES OF OUR LANGUAGE. THIS IS KNOWN AS THE HYPOTHESIS OF LINGUISTIC RELATIVITY.
WHAT IS CULTURAL DIVERSITY?
STEMS FROM THE EXISTENCE OF GROUPS KNOWN AS SUBCULTURES AND COUNTERCULTURES THAT ARE SOMEWHAT DIFFERENT THAN THE LARGER CULTURE.
SOCIAL CATEGORY?
IS A GROUP OF PERSONS WHO SHARE A SOCIAL CHARACTERISTIC SUCH AS AGE; SEX; OR RELIGION.
WHAT IS A SUBCULTURE?
A GROUP THAT IS PART OF THE DOMINANT CULTURE BUT DIFFERS FROM IT IN SOME IMPORTANT RESPECTS.
MULTICULTURALISM?
ACCENTS THE VIEWPOINTS; EXPERIENCES; AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF MINORITIES.
COUNTERCULTURE?
IS A SUBCULTURE THAT IS DELIBERATELY AND CONSCIOUSLY OPPOSED TO CERTAIN CENTRAL ASPECTS OF THE DOMINANT CULTURE. A COUNTERCULTURE CAN BE UNDERSTOOD ONLY WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF ITS UNDERLYING OPPOSITION TO THE DOMINANT CULTURE. COUNTERCULTURE OPENLY DEFY THE NORMS; VALUES; BELIEFS OF THE DOMINANT CULTURE.
ETHNOCENTRISM?
THE TENDENCY TO JUDGE OTHERS IN RELATION TO ONES OWN CULTURAL STANDARDS IS REFERRED TO AS ETHNOCENTRISM.
CULTURAL RELATIVISM?
VALUES; NORMS; BELIEFS; AND ATTITUDES ARE NOT IN THEMSELVES CORRECT OR INCORRECT; DESIRABLE OR UNDESIRABLE.
WHAT DOES CULTURAL RELATIVISM NOT REQUIRE?
OUR ACCEPTING OTHER CULTURE WAYS AS OUR OWN; NOR DOES IT REQUIRE ENGAGEMENT IN ALIEN CULTURAL PRACTICES.
CULTURAL UNIVERSALS?
GENERAL CULTURAL TRAITS THOUGHT TO EXIST IN ALL KNOWN CULTURES. THESE UNIVERSALS INCLUDED ATHLETIC SPORTS; COOKING; COURTSHIP; DIVISION OF LABOR; ETC.
CULTURAL PARTICULARS?
WHEN CULTURE DEVELOPS DIFFERENT WAYS OF DEMONSTRATING THE SAME UNIVERSAL TRAITS.
INSTINCTS?
ARE GENETICALLY INHERITED; COMPLEX PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOR THAT ALWAYS APPEAR AMONG MEMBERS OF A PARTICULAR SPECIES UNDER APPROPRIATE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS.
REFLEXES?
ARE SIMPLE; BIOLOGICAL INHERITED; AUTOMATIC REACTIONS TO PHYSICAL STIMULI(OR NATURAL REFLEX)
DRIVES?
IMPULSES TO REDUCE DISCOMFORT(SEXUAL DRIVES; EATING URGES).
WHAT IS SOCIOBIOLOGY?
IS THE STUDY OF THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR.
NEARLY ALL THE HUMAN SOCIAL BEHAVIOR WE CONSIDER NATURAL AND NORMAL IS WHAT?
IT IS LEARNED.
SOCIALIZATION?
THE PROCESS OF LEARNING TO PARTICIPATE IN GROUP LIFE THROUGH THE ACQUISITION OF CULTURE.
PERSONALITY?
THE RELATIVELY ORGANIZED COMPLEX OF ATTITUDES; BELIEFS; VALUES; AND BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH AN INDIVIDUAL.
AT WHAT POINT IN LIFE DOES SOCIALIZATION STOP?
UNTIL YOU'RE DEAD AND A LITTLE WHILE AFTER(*FUNERAL SERVICES)
WHAT MAKES YOU WHO YOU ARE?
SOCIALIZATION
SELF CONCEPT?
AN IMAGE OF ONESELF AS AN ENTITY SEPARATE FROM OTHER PEOPLE THAT STILL STAND TODAY.
LOOKING GLASS SELF?
A SELF CONCEPT BASED ON OUR PERCEPTION OF OTHERS’ JUDGMENTS OF US.
WHAT IS THE 3 STAGE PROCESS OF THE LOOKING GLASS CONCEPT?
(1)WE IMAGINE HOW WE APPEAR TO OTHERS (2)NEXT WE IMAGINE THE REACTION OF OTHERS TO OUR IMAGINED APPEARANCE (3)FINALLY WE EVALUATE OURSELVES ACCORDING TO HOW WE IMAGINE OTHERS HAVE JUDGED US.
THE CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE?
VIEWS SOCIALIZATION (THE LEARNING OF ROLES AND ACCEPTANCE OF STATUSES) AS A WAY OF PERPETUATING THE STATUS QUO.
WHAT ARE THE 4 MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS OF SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONS TO OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS?
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SELF CONCEPT(1); THE ROLE OF SYMBOLS AND LANGUAGE IN INTERPRETING THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT(2); THE PROCESS OF LEARNING AND ASSUMING ROLES(3); AND (4)THE SOCIAL ANTECEDENTS OF HUMAN NATURE.
BECAUSE THE LOOKING GLASS SELF COMES FROM OUR IMAGINATION?
THE MIRRORS OF LOOKING GLASS SELF MAY BE DISTORTED.
SIGNIFICANT OTHERS?
THOSE WHOSE JUDGMENTS ARE MOST IMPORTANT TO OUR SELF CONCEPT.
ROLE TAKING?
THE PROCESS WHICH ALLOWS US TO TAKE THE VIEW POINT OF ANOTHER INDIVIDUAL AND THEN RESPOND TO OURSELVES FROM THAT IMAGINED VIEWPOINT.
IMITATION STAGE?
WHICH BEGINS AROUND AGE ONE AND A HALF TO TWO YEARS; THE CHILD IMITATES (WITHOUT UNDERSTANDING) THE PHYSICAL AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR OF A SIGNIFICANT OTHER.
PLAY STAGE?
THE STAGE AT WHICH CHILDREN TAKE ON ANOTHER PERSON'S ROLE ONE AT A TIME.
GAME STAGE?
THE STAGE IN WHICH CHILDREN LEARN TO ENGAGE IN MORE SOPHISTICATED ROLE TAKING.
GENERALIZED OTHER?
AN INTEGRATED CONCEPTION OF THE NORMS; VALUES; AND BELIEFS OF ONE'S SOCIETY EMERGES.
WHAT SOCIAL BEHAVIOR IS SPONTANEOUS AND UNPREDICTABLE?
HUMAN BEHAVIOR.
SELF IS COMPOSED OF WHAT TWO ANALYTICALLY SEPARABLE PARTS?
THE “ME” AND THE “I”.
THE INITIAL IMPULSE IS DIRECTED IN SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE CHANNELS BY WHAT?
BY THE ME.
WHAT IS THE “ME”?
IS THE PART OF THE SELF FORMED THROUGH SOCIALIZATION. THE “ME” ACCOUNTS FOR PREDICTABILITY AND CONFORMITY.
WHAT IS THE “I”?
ACCOUNTS FOR THE SPONTANEOUS AND UNPREDICTABLE PART OF THE SELF.
WHICH PART OF SELF USUALLY TAKES CONTROL?
THE “I” BECAUSE MOST HUMAN BEHAVIOR IS SPONTANEOUS AND UNPREDICTABLE.
WHAT TAKES THE WHAT IN ACCOUNT BEFORE ACTING?
THE “I” TAKES THE “ME” INTO ACCOUNT BEFORE ACTING.
WHAT 3 PARTS COMPOSE HUMAN PERSONALITY?
THE “ID”(1); THE “EGO”(2); & THE “SUPEREGO”(3).
DEFINE “ID”?
THE ID IS MADE UP OF BIOLOGICALLY INHERITED URGES; IMPULSES; AND DESIRES. IT IS SELFISH; IRRATIONAL; IMPULSIVE; ANTISOCIAL; AND UNCONSCIOUS. THE OPERATES ON THE PLEASURE OF PRINCIPLE; THE PRINCIPLE HAVING WHATEVER FEES GOOD.
WHAT IS AN EXAMPLE OF THE “ID”?
NEWBORN BABIES WHICH WANT THEIR EVERY DESIRE FULFILLED WITHOUT DELAY.
DEFINE “EGO”?
THE CONSCIOUS; RATIONAL PART OF THE EGO IS RULED BY THE REALITY PRINCIPLE; WHICH ALLOWS US TO DELAY ACTION UNTIL A TIME WHEN THE GRATIFICATION OF OUR DESIRES IS MORE LIKELY. THUS THE EGO MEDIATES BETWEEN THE BIOLOGICAL; UNCONSCIOUS IMPULSES OF THE ID AND THE DENYING SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT. BUT THE EGO IS NOT ITSELF SUFFICIENT TO CONTROL THE ID. NOR NEED IT BE.
DEFINE “SUPEREGO”?
WHEN ROUGHLY THE CONSCIOUS BEGINS TO DEVELOP. IT CONTAINS ALL THE RIGHT & WRONG IDEAS WE HAVE LEARNED FROM THOSE CLOSE TO US; PARTICULARLY OUR PARENTS. BY INCORPORATING THEIR IDEAS INTO OUR PERSONALITY; WE DEVELOP WHAT MAY BE THOUGHT OF AS AN INTERNAL PARENT. PARENTS ARE NO LONGER THE ONLY SOURCE OF PUNISHMENT FOR WRONGDOING; WE PUNISH OURSELVES THROUGH GUILT FEELINGS.
WHAT DOES THE “ID” DEMAND?
THE ID DEMANDS SATISFACTION; THE SUPEREGO PROHIBITS IT. THE EGO SUPPLIES RATIONAL INFORMATION IN THIS CONFLICT; IT ATTEMPTS TO GAIN SATISFACTION WITHIN THE LIMITS SET BY THE SUPEREGO AND THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT.
ACCORDING TO PAIGET?
CHILDREN GRADUALLY DEVELOP COGNITIVE ABILITIES THROUGH INTERACTION WITH THEIR SOCIAL SETTING THROUGH THE PROCESS OF SOCIALIZATION.
WHAT IS THE SENSORIMOTOR?
WHERE THE BASIS FOR THOUGHT IS LAID. BEGINS AT BIRTH AND LASTS UNTIL THE AGE OF 18 MONTHS TO 2 YEARS.
PREOPERATIONAL STAGE?
CHILDREN LEARN TO THINK SYMBOLICALLY AND TO USE LANGUAGE.
CONCRETE OPERATIONS?
WHICH SPANS THE AGES OF 7 & 11. A CHILD BEGINS TO THINK LOGICALLY ABOUT TIME; QUANTITY; AND SPACE; HANDLE ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS; AND PLACE THINGS LOGICALLY IN CATEGORIES.
DELOCALIZATION?
THE PROCESS OF RELINQUISHING OLD NORMS; VALUES; ATTITUDES; AND BEHAVIORS.
RESOCIALIZATION?
THE PROCESS OF LEARNING TO ADOPT NEW NORMS; VALUES; ATTITUDES; AND BEHAVIORS CAN BEGIN.
ANTICIPATORY SOCIALIZATION?
THE PROCESS OF PREPARING ONESELF OF LEARNING NEW NORMS; VALUES; ATTITUDES; AND BEHAVIORS DOES NOT GENERALLY OCCUR IN THE EXTREME SOCIAL SETTINGS REPRESENTED BY TOTAL INSTITUTIONS.
WHY DOES ANTICIPATORY SOCIALIZATION HAPPEN?
THIS HAPPENS BECAUSE ANTICIPATION SOCIALIZATION INVOLVES VOLUNTARY CHANGE.
REFERENCE GROUP?
A GROUP USED TO EVALUATE ONESELF AND FROM WHICH TO ACQUIRE ATTITUDES; VALUES; BELIEFS; AND NORMS.
HIDDEN CURRICULUM?
THE SUBTERRANEAN INFORMAL AND UNOFFICIAL ASPECTS OF CULTURE THAT TAUGHT CHILDREN DISCIPLINE; ORDER; COOPERATION; AND CONFORMITY CHARACTERISTICS THOUGHT TO BE NEEDED FOR SUCCESS IN MODERN BUREAUCRATIC SOCIETY; WHETHER THE CHILD BECOMES A DOCTOR; COLLEGE PRESIDENT; SECRETARY; ASSEMBLY LINE WORKER; ASSEMBLY LINE WORKER; OR PRO ATHLETE.
WHAT ARE EXAMPLES OF A HIDDEN SCHOOL CURRICULUM?
WHAT YOU LEARN WITHOUT ACTUALLY BEING TAUGHT. HOW TO RAISE YOUR HAND BEFORE YOU ASK A QUESTION; HOW TO STAND IN LINE; HOW TO RESPECT YOUR NEIGHBOR BY NOT DISRUPTING THEIR LEARNING. BASIC RIGHT & WRONG PARENT TO CHILD TEACHINGS NOT NECESSARILY OUTLINED IN A SCHOOL CURRICULUM.
PEER GROUP?
COMPOSED OF INDIVIDUALS OF ROUGHLY THE SAME AGE AND INTERESTS. IT IS THE ONLY AGENCY OF SOCIALIZATION THAT IS NOT CONTROLLED PRIMARILY BY ADULTS.
MASS MEDIA?
ARE MEANS OF COMMUNICATION DESIGNED TO REACH THE GENERAL POPULATION.
WHAT ARE DIFFERENT EXAMPLES OF MASS MEDIA?
(1)TV; (2)RADIO (3)NEWSPAPERS (4)MAGAZINES (5)MOVIES (6)BOOKS (7)THE INTERNET (8)TAPES (9)& DISKS. CHILDREN LEARN THE BEHAVIOR EXPECTED OF INDIVIDUALS IN CERTAIN SOCIAL STATUSES.
WHAT IS THE PRIMARY MARKETING AGE MASS MEDIA TARGETS?
AGES 13 THROUGH 18.
THE AVERAGE AMERICAN CHILD HAS SEEN HOW MANY HOMICIDES BY AGE SIXTEEN?
20K.
CONTINUITY THEORY?
TO EXPLAIN HOW PEOPLE ADJUST PSYCHOLOGICALLY AND SOCIALLY TO THE AGING PROCESS.
WHAT IS AN EXAMPLE OF CONTINUITY THEORY?
WHEN ONE OF AN OLD MARRIED COUPLE DIES AND THE OTHER DIES SHORTLY AFTER.
PEOPLE ARE MORE ACCEPTING TO DEATH IF THEY ARE OPEN TO WHAT?
OPEN TO TALK ABOUT IT.
HOSPICES?
ORGANIZATIONS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE SUPPORT FOR THE DYING AND THEIR FAMILIES. THEY APPEAR TO BE BETTER SOCIALIZED IN PART BECAUSE THEY CAN SHARE THEIR FEELINGS WITH OTHERS WHO ARE DYING.
WHAT ACTUALLY KEEPS A PERSON ALIVE(LIKE AN OLDER PERSON)?
STIMULI.
AMERICANS ARE AFRAID OF AND DON’T DISCUSS MUCH OF WHAT?
DEATH & DYING.
WHAT ARE THE 5 STAGES HUMAN GO THROUGH FACING DEATH?
DENIAL AND ISOLATION(1); ANGER(2); BARGAINING(3); DEPRESSION(4); ACCEPTANCE(5).
SOCIAL CLASS?
REFERS TO A SEGMENT OF A POPULATION WHOSE MEMBERS HAVE A RELATIVELY SIMILAR OF SOCIETIES DESIRABLE THINGS; AND WHO SHARE ATTITUDES; VALUES; NORMS; AND AN IDENTIFIABLE LIFESTYLE.
IDEOLOGY?
A SET OF IDEAS HUMANS USE TO JUSTIFY AND DEFEND THEIR INTERESTS AND ACTIONS & TO REDUCE IMPACT OF COMPETING IDEAS.
POWER ELITE?
A UNIFIED COALITION OF TOP MILITARY; CORPORATE; AND GOVERNMENT LEADERS.
GROUP?
COMPOSED OF PEOPLE WHO ARE IN CONTACT WITH EACH ONE ANOTHER; SHARE SOME WAYS OF THINKING; FEELING; AND BEHAVING; TAKE ANOTHER'S BEHAVIOR INTO ACCOUNT; AND HAVE ONE OR MORE INTERESTS OR AND HAVE ONE OR MORE INTERESTS OR GOALS IN COMMON.
CATEGORY?
PEOPLE WHO SHARE A SOCIAL CHARACTERISTIC. A TAXPAYER; A WOMAN; AND A COLLEGE GRADUATE EACH BELONG TO A SOCIAL CATEGORY.
SOCIAL AGGREGATE?
PEOPLE WHO HAPPEN TO BE AT THE SAME PLACE AT THE SAME TIME; SUCH AS STUDENTS WAITING IN LINE FOR CONCERT TICKETS.
PRIMARY GROUP?
COMPOSED OF PEOPLE WHO ARE EMOTIONALLY CLOSE; KNOW ONE ANOTHER WELL; AND SEEK ONE ANOTHER'S COMPANY. THE MEMBERS OF A PRIMARY GROUP HAVE A "WE" FEELING AND ENJOY BEING TOGETHER. THESE GROUPS ARE CHARACTERIZED BY RELATIONSHIPS THAT ARE INTIMATE; PERSONAL; CARING; AND FULFILLING.
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF PRIMARY GROUPS?
FIRST PRIMARY GROUPS PROVIDE EMOTIONAL SUPPORT THROUGH CARING; PERSONAL; AND INTIMATE RELATIONSHIP. SECOND PRIMARY GROUPS CONTRIBUTE TO THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS. THIRD; PRIMARY GROUPS PROMOTE CONFORMITY AND CONTRIBUTE TO SOCIAL CONTROL.
WHAT 4 CONDITIONS PROMOTE THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY GROUPS?
(1)SMALL GROUP SIZE; (2)FACE –TO-FACE CONTACT; (3)CONTINUOUS CONTACT; & (4)PROPER SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT.
SMALL GROUP SIZE?
IT IS DIFFICULT FOR THE MEMBERS OF LARGE GROUPS TO SPEND ENOUGH TIME TOGETHER TO DEVELOP CLOSE EMOTIONAL TIES; THE CHANCES OF KNOWING EVERYONE FAIRLY WELL ARE FAR GREATER IN SMALL GROUPS. THUS; MEMBERS OF A BRIDGE FOURSOME ARE MORE LIKELY TO DEVELOP PRIMARY RELATIONSHIPS THAN ARE MEMBERS OF A METROPOLITAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE; EVEN WHEN BOTH GROUPS MEET REGULARLY.
FACE-TO-FACE CONTACT?
PEOPLE HAVE MAINTAINED PRIMARY RELATIONSHIPS DESPITE SEPARATION BY WAR; PRISON; OR RESIDENTIAL CHANGES AND HAVE EVEN ESTABLISHED LONG-DISTANCE PRIMARY RELATIONSHIPS THROUGH E-MAIL OR TELEPHONE CONVERSATIONS; BUT PRIMARY RELATIONSHIPS OCCUR MORE EASILY WHEN INTERACTION IS FACE-TO-FACE. PEOPLE WHO CAN SEE EACH OTHER AND WHO CAN EXPERIENCE SUCH NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION AS FACIAL EXPRESSIONS; TONE OF VOICE; AND TOUCH ARE MUCH MORE LIKELY TO DEVELOP CLOSE TIES.
CONTINUOUS CONTACT?
THE PROBABILITY OF DEVELOPING A PRIMARY RELATIONSHIP ALSO INCREASES WITH PROLONGED CONTACT. INTIMACY RARELY DEVELOPS IN A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME. IN SPITE OF REPORTED LOVE AT FIRST SIGHT; MOST OF US REQUIRE REPEATED SOCIAL CONTACT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF A PRIMARY RELATIONSHIP.
PROPER SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT?
THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY RELATIONSHIPS IS ALSO AFFECTED BY THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH INTERACTION OCCURS. IF INDIVIDUALS ARE EXPECTED TO RELATE TO ONE ANOTHER STRICTLY ON THE BASIS OF STATUS OR ROLE; PRIMARY RELATIONSHIPS ARE UNLIKELY TO DEVELOP. TOTAL PERSONALITIES ARE USUALLY NOT CONSIDERED; AND PERSONAL CONCERN FOR ONE ANOTHER DOES NOT SEEM APPROPRIATE. LAWYERS WHO SEE JUDGES IN COURT FACE-TO-FACE; IN THE PRESENCE OF A SMALL NUMBER OF PEOPLE; AND OVER A LONG PERIOD OF TIME ARE NEVERTHELESS UNLIKELY TO DEVELOP PRIMARY RELATIONSHIPS WITH THEM. FORMING PRIMARY RELATIONSHIPS WHEN UNEQUAL STATUSES ARE INVOLVED IS ALWAYS DIFFICULT. THIS IS THE REASON PRIMARY RELATIONSHIPS DO NOT USUALLY DEVELOP BETWEEN STUDENTS AND PROFESSORS; BOSSES AND EMPLOYEES; OR JUDGES AND LAWYERS.
SECONDARY GROUP?
EXISTS TO ACCOMPLISH A SPECIFIC PURPOSE. A SECONDARY GROUP IS IMPERSONAL AND GOAL ORIENTED; IT INVOLVES ONLY A SEGMENT OF IT'S MEMBERS' LIVES.
SECONDARY RELATIONSHIPS?
IMPERSONAL INTERACTIONS INVOLVING ONLY LIMITED PARTS OF THEIR PERSONALITY. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SALESPERSONS AND CUSTOMERS; EMPLOYERS; AND WORKERS; AND DENTISTS AND PATIENTS ARE SECONDARY RELATIONSHIPS.
REFERENCE GROUPS?
WE USE CERTAIN GROUPS TO EVALUATE OURSELVES AND TO ACQUIRE ATTITUDES; VALUES; BELIEFS; AND NORMS. GROUP USED IN THIS WAY ARE CALLED REFERENCE GROUPS.
WHAT 3 CONDITIONS PROMOTE THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY GROUPS?
(1)SMALL GROUP SIZE; (2)FACE-TO-FACE CONTACT; (3)CONTINUOUS CONTACT; (4)PROPER SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT.
WHAT 8 TYPES OF PEOPLE TO REFERENCE GROUPS INCLUDE?
FAMILIES; TEACHERS; COLLEGE CLASSMATES; STUDENT GOVERNMENT LEADERS; COLLEGE GREEK ORGANIZATIONS; ROCK GROUPS; OR PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL SQUADS.
WHAT TWO THINGS DO REFERENCE GROUPS INFLUENCE?
(1)SELF-ESTEEM AND (2) BEHAVIOR.
IN-GROUP?
ENCOURAGES INTENSE IDENTIFICATION AND LOYALTY.
OUT-GROUP?
A GROUP TOWARD WHICH IN-GROUP MEMBERS FEEL OPPOSITION AND COMPETITION. IT IS FROM MEMBERSHIP IN THESE GROUPS THAT PEOPLE DIVIDE INTO "WE" AND "THEY".
WHERE ARE IN & OUT GROUPS FOUND?
EVERY SOCIAL ARENA INCLUDING GREEK ORGANIZATIONS; ATHLETIC TEAMS; POLITICAL PARTIES; RADICAL OR ETHNICALLY DIVIDED NEIGHBORHOODS; COUNTRIES AT WAR.
HOW DOES ONE MAINTAIN GROUP BOUNDARIES?
BY SOME TYPE OF REQUIRING OF COMMITMENT FROM THE GROUP MEMBERS.
SOCIAL NETWORK?
A WEB OF SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS THAT JOINS A PERSON TO OTHER PEOPLE AND GROUPS.
WHAT DOES A SOCIAL NETWORK LACK?
BOUNDARIES OF A GROUP; AND IT DOES NOT NECESSARILY INVOLVE CLOSE OR CONTINUOUS INTERACTION.
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF SOCIAL NETWORKS?
NETWORKS PROVIDE A SENSE OF BELONGING(1); THEY FURNISH SUPPORT IN THE FORM OF HELP AND ADVICE(2); FINALLY NETWORKS ARE A USEFUL TO ONE'S CAREER.
COOPERATION?
IS A FORM OF INTERACTION IN WHICH INDIVIDUALS OR GROUPS COMBINE THEIR EFFORTS TO REACH SOME COMMON GOALS.
CONFLICT?
INDIVIDUALS OR GROUPS WHO WORK TOGETHER TO OBTAIN CERTAIN BENEFITS ARE COOPERATING. THOSE WHO WORK AGAINST ONE ANOTHER FOR A LARGER SHARE OF THE REWARDS ARE IN CONFLICT.
SOCIAL EXCHANGE?
A TYPE OF INTERACTION IN WHICH ONE PERSON VOLUNTARILY DOES SOMETHING FOR ANOTHER; EXPECTING A REWARD IN RETURN.
COERCION?
AN INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP COMPELS OTHERS TO BEHAVE IN CERTAIN WAYS. THE CENTRAL ELEMENT IS DOMINATION. IN A SENSE; COERCION IS AN UNEQUAL EXCHANGE. GENERALLY EXPRESSED MORE SUBTLY THROUGH SOCIAL PRESSURE; RIDICULE; REJECTION; OSTRACISM; WITHDRAWAL OF LOVE; AND DENIAL RECOGNITION.
DOMINATION?
MAY OCCUR THROUGH PHYSICAL FORCE; SUCH AS IMPRISONMENT; TORTURE; OR DEATH.
CONFORMITY?
IS BEHAVIOR MATCHING GROUP EXPECTATIONS. WHEN WE CONFORM; WE ADAPT OUR BEHAVIOR TO FIT THE BEHAVIOR OF THOSE AROUND US. WHILE SOME ARE MORE LIKELY TO CONFORM THAN OTHERS; MOST PEOPLE CONFORM TO THE EXPECTATIONS OF SOME GROUP MOST OF THE TIME.
GROUPTHINK?
A SITUATION IN WHICH PRESSURES TOWARD UNIFORMITY DISCOURAGE MEMBERS OF THE GROUP FROM EXPRESSING THEIR RESERVATIONS ABOUT GROUP DECISIONS.
FORMAL ORGANIZATION?
IS DELIBERATELY CREATED TO ACHIEVE ONE OR MORE GOALS.
EXAMPLES OF FORMAL ORGANIZATION?
HIGH SCHOOLS; COLLEGES; CORPORATIONS; GOVERNMENT AGENCIES; AND HOSPITALS.
BUREAUCRACIES?
FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS BASED ON RATIONALITY AND EFFICIENCY. USED AS AN EFFICIENT FORM IN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY.
POWER?
IS TO THE ABILITY TO CONTROL THE BEHAVIOR OF OTHERS; EVEN AGAINST THEIR WILL.
AUTHORITY?
IS THE EXERCISE OF LEGITIMATE POWER THAT PRODUCES COMPLIANCE BECAUSE THOSE SUBJECTED TO IT BELIEVE THAT OBEDIENCE IS THE PROPER RESPONSE.
IDEAL-TYPE METHOD?
THIS METHOD ISOLATES; TO THE POINT OF EXAGGERATION; THE MOST BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME SOCIAL ENTITY.
RATIONALISM?
THE SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS ON THE BASIS OF LOGIC; DATA; AND PLANNING RATHER THAN TRADITION AND SUPERSTITION. BUREAUCRACIES ARE CONSISTENT WITH RATIONALISM.
GOAL DISPLACEMENT?
WHEN ORGANIZATIONAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BECOME MORE IMPORTANT THAN ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS.
TRAINED INCAPACITY?
EXISTS WHEN PREVIOUS TRAINING PREVENTS SOMEONE FROM ADAPTING TO NEW SITUATIONS.
ORGANIC-ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS?
ORGANIZATIONS BASED ON RAPID RESPONSE TO CHANGE RATHER THAN ON THE CONTINUING IMPLEMENTATION OF ESTABLISHED ADMINISTRATIVE PRINCIPLES.
INFORMAL ORGANIZATION?
A GROUP (WITHIN A FORMAL ORGANIZATION) IN WHICH PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS ARE GUIDED BY UNOFFICIAL NORMS; RITUALS; AND SENTIMENTS THAT ARE NOT PART OF THE FORMAL ORGANIZATION.
WHY DO INFORMAL ORGANIZATIONS EXIST?
THEY SPONTANEOUSLY DEVELOP TO MEET THE NEEDS THAT ARE IGNORED BY THE FORMAL ORGANIZATION.
IRON LAW OF OLIGARCHY?
POWER TENDS TO BECOME INCREASINGLY CONCENTRATED IN THE HANDS OF A FEW MEMBERS OF ANY ORGANIZATION.
WHAT DOES THE WORD "ORGANIZATION" ITSELF IMPLY?
POWER.
SEXUAL HARASSMENT?
THE USE OF ONE'S SUPERIOR POWER IN MAKING UNWELCOME SEXUAL ADVANCES.
ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT?
CONSISTS OF ALL THE FORCES OUTSIDE AND ORGANIZATION THAT EXERT AN ACTUAL OR POTENTIAL INFLUENCE ON THE ORGANIZATION.
INTER-ORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONSHIP?
IS A PATTERN OF INTERACTION AMONG AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES OF TWO OR MORE FORMALLY INDEPENDENT ORGANIZATIONS.
SOCIAL STRUCTURE?
IN OUR MINDS WE CARRY A SOCIAL MAP FOR VARIOUS GROUP SITUATIONS.
STATUS?
A POSITION A PERSON OCCUPIES WITHIN A SOCIAL STRUCTURE.
ASCRIBED STATUS?
IS NEITHER EARNED NOR CHOSEN; IT IS ASSIGNED TO US.
ACHIEVED STATUS?
IS EARNED OR CHOSEN BECAUSE PEOPLE HAVE SOME DEGREE OF CONTROL AND CHOICE.
STATUS SET?
IS ALL OF THE STATUSES THAT AN INDIVIDUAL OCCUPIES AT ANY PARTICULAR TIME.
MASTER STATUS?
ARE IMPORTANT BECAUSE THEY INFLUENCE MOST OTHER ASPECTS OF A PERSON'S LIFE.
ROLES?
ARE THE CULTURALLY DEFINED RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS ATTACHED TO A STATUS; THEY INDICATE THE BEHAVIOR EXPECTED OF AN INDIVIDUAL HOLDING THAT PARTICULAR STATUS.
RIGHTS?
INFORM INDIVIDUALS OF BEHAVIOR THEY CAN EXPECT FROM THEM.
OBLIGATIONS?
INFORM INDIVIDUALS OF THE BEHAVIOR OTHERS EXPECT FROM THEM.
ROLE PERFORMANCE?
IS THE ACTUAL CONDUCT; OR BEHAVIOR; INVOLVED IN ACTIVATING A ROLE.
SOCIAL INTERACTION?
IS THE PROCESS OF TWO OR MORE PERSONS INFLUENCING EACH OTHER'S BEHAVIOR.
ROLE CONFLICT?
OCCURS WHEN THE PERFORMANCE OF A ROLE IN ONE STATUS CLASHES WITH THE PERFORMANCE OF A ROLE IN ANOTHER STATUS.
ROLE STRAIN?
OCCURS WHEN SOME OF THE ROLES OF A SINGLE STATUS CLASH.
SOCIETY?
IS COMPOSED OF A PEOPLE LIVING WITHIN DEFINED TERRITORIAL BORDERS; SHARING A COMMON CULTURE.
HUNTING AND GATHERING SOCIETY?
SURVIVES BY HUNTING ANIMALS AND GATHERING EDIBLE FOODS SUCH AS WILD FRUITS AND VEGETABLES.
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETIES?
UNLIKE HUNTERS AND GATHERERS THEY USE THE DOMESTICATION OF PLANTS TO SURVIVE.
PASTORAL SOCIETIES?
FOOD IS OBTAINED PRIMARILY BY RAISING AND TAKING CARE OF DOMESTICATED ANIMALS.
AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY?
WAS MADE POSSIBLE LARGELY THROUGH THE INVENTION OF THE PLOW.
INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY?
A SOCIETY WHOSE SUBSTANCE IS BASED PRIMARILY ON THE APPLICATION OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TO THE PRODUCTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES.
STRUCTURAL DIFFERENTIATION?
OCCURS WHEN A SINGLE SOCIAL STRUCTURE DIVIDES INTO TWO OR MORE SOCIAL STRUCTURES.
GEMEINSCHAFT?
MEANS "COMMUNITY" IN GERMAN.
GESELLSCHAFT?
MEANS SOCIETY IN GERMAN.
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GEMEINSCHAFT(COMMUNITY) & GESELLSCHAFT(SOCIETY)?
THE DIFFERENCE IS BASED ON TRADITION; KINSHIP; AND INTIMATE SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS.
MECHANICAL SOLIDARITY?
IS THE FOUNDATION FRO SOCIAL UNITY. A SOCIETY BASED ON CONSENSUS OF BELIEFS; VALUES; AND NORMS; STRONG SOCIAL PRESSURES FOR CONFORMITY; AND DEPENDENCE ON TRADITION AND FAMILY.
ORGANIC SOLIDARITY?
ORGANIC SOLIDARITY ACHIEVES SOCIAL UNITY THROUGH A COMPLEX OF SPECIALIZED STATUSES THAT MAKES MEMBERS OF A SOCIETY INTERDEPENDENT.
FOLK SOCIETY?
RESTS ON TRADITION; CULTURAL AND SOCIAL CONSENSUS; FAMILY; PERSONAL TIES; LITTLE DIVISION OF LABOR; AND AN EMPHASIS ON THE SACRED.
URBAN SOCIETY?
SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS ARE IMPERSONAL AND CONTRACTUAL; THE IMPORTANCE OF THE FAMILY DECLINES; CULTURAL AND SOCIAL CONSENSUS IS DIMINISHED; ECONOMIC SPECIALIZATION BECOMES EVEN MORE COMPLEX; AND SECULAR CONCERNS OUTWEIGH SACRED ONES.
POSTINDUSTRIAL SOCIETY?
THIS BASE IS GROUNDED MORE IN SERVICE INDUSTRIES THAN IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES AND RELIES ON EXPERTISE IN PRODUCTION; CONSUMPTION; AND GOVERNMENT.
WHAT ARE 3 EXAMPLES OF PRIMARY GROUPS?
(1)NEIGHBORHOODS; (2)FAMILY; AND (3)PLAY GROUPS BECAUSE THEY ARE THE FIRST GROUPS AN INFANT EXPERIENCES.
WHAT TYPE OF CONFORMITY EXISTS WITHIN A SOCIAL PRIMARY GROUP?
SOCIAL CONTROL(SOMEONE KNOWING THEIR ROLE OR PLACE WITHIN A GROUP)
A CLASSROOM OF STUDENTS IS WHAT TYPE OF GROUP?
A SECONDARY GROUP.
SECONDARY RELATIONSHIPS MUST MAINTAIN WHAT TO PROPERLY FUNCTION?
A CERTAIN LEVEL OF IMPERSONAL INTERACTION INVOLVING A LIMITED PART OF THEIR PERSONALITY.
AN EXAMPLE OF MANDATORY IMPERSONAL & LIMITED INTERACTION WITHIN A SECONDARY RELATIONSHIP IS?
A COUPLE IN A STUDY GROUP OF STUDENTS THAT DECIDE NOT TO MEET WITH THE OTHER MEMBERS & EXCHANGE NOTES BECAUSE THE COUPLE WERE FIGHTING & MAD AT EACH OTHER.
WHAT ARE A SIMPLE EXAMPLES OF REFERENCE GROUPS?
CELEBRITIES AND OR CHURCH MEMBERS.
DEVIANCE?
IS ANY BEHAVIOR THAT DEPARTS FROM SOCIETAL OR GROUP NORMS. MAY BE EITHER POSITIVE(OVER CONFORMING) OR NEGATIVE (UNDER CONFORMING)
SOCIETY COULD NOT EXIST WITHOUT WHAT?
CONFORMITY AND PREDICTABILITY IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR.
NEGATIVE DEVIANCE?
INVOLVES BEHAVIOR THAT UNDER CONFORMS TO ACCEPTED NORMS. NEGATIVE DEVIANTS REJECT THE NORMS; MISINTERPRET THE NORMS; OR ARE UNAWARE OF THE NORMS.
POSITIVE DEVIANCE?
ENCOMPASSES BEHAVIOR THAT OVERCONFORMS TO SOCIAL EXPECTATIONS. POSITIVE DEVIANTS CONFORM TO NORMS IN AN UNBALANCED WAY.
SIGNIFICANT NORMS?
ARE THOSE THAT ARE HIGHLY IMPORTANT EITHER TO MOST MEMBERS OF A SOCIETY OR TO THE MEMBERS WITH THE MOST POWER.
DEVIANT?
IS A PERSON WHO VIOLATES ONE OR MORE OF SOCIETY'S MOST HIGHLY VALUED NORMS.
SOCIAL CONTROL?
MEANS FRO PROMOTING CONFORMITY TO NORMS. SOCIAL LIFE WOULD BE CAPRICIOUS; EVEN CHAOTIC.
EXTERNAL SOCIAL CONTROL IS BASED ON WHAT?
SANCTIONS; REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS; DESIGNED TO ENCOURAGE DESIRED BEHAVIOR.
ANOMIE?
IS A SOCIAL CONDITION IN WHICH NORMS ARE WEAK; CONFLICTING; OR ABSENT.
STRAIN THEORY?
ACCORDING TO MERON'S THEORY DEVIANCE IS MOST LIKELY TO OCCUR WHEN THERE IS A DISCREPANCY BETWEEN A CULTURALLY PRESCRIBED GOAL(ECONOMIC SUCCESS) AND A LEGITIMATE MEANS OF OBTAINING IT(EDUCATION).
CONFORMITY?
PURSUING CULTURALLY APPROVED GOALS THROUGH LEGITIMATE MEANS.
INNOVATION?
THE INDIVIDUAL ACCEPT THE GOALS OF(SUCCESS) BUT ADOPTS A LEGITIMATE MEANS FOR ACHIEVING IT.
RITUALISM?
THE INDIVIDUAL REJECT THE GOAL(SUCCESS) BUT MAINTAINS THE LEGITIMATE MEANS.
RETREATISM?
IS A DEVIANT RESPONSE IN WHICH BOTH THE LEGITIMATE MEANS AND THE APPROVED GOALS ARE REJECTED.
REBELLION?
PEOPLE REJECT BOTH SUCCESS AND THE APPROVED MEANS FOR ACHIEVING IT.
CONTROL THEORY?
CONFORMITY TO SOCIAL NORMS DEPENDS ON A STRONG BOND BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS AND SOCIETY.
ATTACHMENT?
THE LIKELIHOOD OF CONFORMITY VARIES WITH THE STRENGTH OF THE TIES ONE HAS WITH PARENTS; FRIENDS; AND INSTITUTIONS SUCH AS SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES. THE STRONGER THE ATTACHMENT; MORE LIKELIHOOD OF CONFORMITY.
COMMITMENT?
THE GREATER ONE'S COMMITMENT TO LEGITIMATE SOCIAL GOALS SUCH AS EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND OCCUR ADULTS EXCEEDS THAT.
INVOLVEMENT?
PARTICIPATION IN LEGITIMATE SOCIAL ACTIVITIES INCREASE THE PROBABILITY OF CONFORMITY; BOTH BECAUSE IT POSITIVELY FOCUSES TIME AND ENERGY AND BECAUSE IT ENCOURAGES CONTACT WITH OTHERS WHOSE GOOD OPINION ONE VALUES.
BELIEFS?
SUBSCRIPTION TO NORMS AND VALUES OF SOCIETY PROMOTES CONFORMITY. RESPECT FOR THE RULES OF SOCIAL LIFE STRENGTHENS ONE AGAINST THE TEMPTATIONS OF DEVIANCE.
CULTURAL TRANSMISSION THEORY?
DEVIANCE IS A PART OF A SUBCULTURE; IT IS TRANSMITTED THROUGH SOCIALIZATION.
DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY?
DEVIANT BEHAVIOR LIKE RELIGIOUS CHOICE; POLITICAL AFFILIATION; OR SPORT REFERENCE IS LEARNED; PRINCIPALLY; IN PRIMARY GROUPS.
LABELING THEORY?
NO ACT IS INHERENTLY DEVIANT; DEVIANCE IS A MATTER OF SOCIAL DEFINITION.
PRIMARY DEVIANCE?
A PERSON ENGAGES ONLY IN ISOLATED ACTS OF DEVIANCE.
SECONDARY DEVIANCE?
ON THE OTHER HAND; REFERS TO DEVIANCE AS A LIFESTYLE AND PERSONAL IDENTITY.
STIGMA?
AN UNDEERSIREABLE CHARACTERISTIC OR LABEL USED BY OTHERS TO DENY THE DEVIANT FULL SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE.
VICTIM DISCOUNTING?
REDUCES THE SERIOUSNESS OF CRIMES DIRECTED AGAINST MEMBERS OF LOWER SOCIAL CLASS.
WHITE-COLLAR CRIME?
IS ANY CRIME COMMITTED BY RESPECTABLE AND HIGH-STATUS PEOPLE IN THE COURSE OF THEIR OCCUPATIONS.
CRIME?
ACTS IN VIOLATION OF THE LAW; AS INCLUDING A NARROW RANGE OF BEHAVIOR.
JUVENILE CRIME?
REFERS TO VIOLATIONS OF THE LAW COMMITTED BY THOSE LESS THAN EIGHTEEN YEARS OF AGE.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM?
COMPRISES THE INSTITUTIONS AND PROCESSES RESPONSIBLE FOR ENFORCING CRIMINAL LAW.
DETERRENCE?
EMPHASIZES INTIMIDATION. USING THE THREAT OF PUNISHMENT TO DISCOURAGE CRIMINAL ACTIONS.
RETRIBUTION?
THAT CRIMINALS PAY COMPENSATION EQUAL TO THEIR OFFENSES AGAINST SOCIETY.
INCARCERATION?
THIS APPROACH REMOVES CRIMINALS FROM SOCIETY.
REHABILITATION?
IS AN APPROACH TO CRIME CONTROL THAT ATTEMPTS TO REMOBILIZE CRIMINALS.