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100 Cards in this Set

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what are the female genital organs?
ovaries, genital ducts which are oviducts and uterus and vagina, external genitalia are labia major, minora and clitoris
what are other names for oviducts?
tuba uterina, tuba fallopiana, fallopian tubes
what are the two major factors leading to the changing histology of the female reproductive system?
1. age of person
2. stage of menstrual cycle - of course only iportant during reproductive years
when is menarche medically supposed to happen?
between 9 and 14
what's average age for menarche?
13.5
how long is menstrual cycle?
28-30 days
what are the basic functions of the ovarie?
1. oogenesis
2. steroidogenesis
what hormones are produced by ovaries?
estrogen and progesterone
what hormones target the ovaries?
FSH and LH
follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
what structure releases FSH and LH?
pituitary
what kinds of hormones are FSH and LH?
called gonadotrophins because they act on the gonads, both in men and women same hormones acting either or ovaries or testes
what's the relationship between estrogen and progesterone and FSH and LH?
estrogen and progesterone are products of release of FSH and LH, so when their levels are high, there is feedback inhibition of FSH and LH
what are the four component cycles of the menstrual cycle?
1. pituitary hormone cycle
2. ovarian hormone cycle
3. ovarian follicle cycle
4. uterine menstrual cycle
about what point in menstrual cycle is FSH pretty high?
starts rising at end of cycle and stays high for quite a while, only drops just before ovulation
what does FSH do anyway?
stimulates estrogen production by ovary
estrogen level rises sharply when FSH level starts dropping, just before ovulation
what effect does estrogen have on pituitary hormones?
leads to peak of LH and little peak of FSH called LH and FSH surge
what stimulates ovulation?
LH and FSH surges
what happens to hormone levels after ovulation?
LH, FSH and estrogen levels drop dramatically
progesterone rises dramatically because is produced by corpus luteum which is shell of ova
this causes estrogen to also rise again
why do estrogen and progesterone levels collapse towards the end of the cycle?
because corpus luteum that was maintaining high levels of progesterone that was maintaining high levels of estrogen is degrading
how does FSH know when to start kicking in again towards end of cycle?
decline in estrogen and progesterone
tell story of hormones of menstrual cycle
1. FSH starts whole thing because its responding to low levels of what it makes - estrogen and progesterone
2. FSH causes little surge in estrogen
3. little surge in estrogen cause huge LH and FSH surges that lead to ovulation
4. abandoned corpus luteum starts making progesterone that starts stimulating production of estrogen
5. levels of progesterone and estrogen drop as corpus dies
6. FSH climbs back up again to take over stimulation of estrogen after corpus luteum is dead
what's the size and shape of the ovaries?
shape: oval and flat
size: 4 cm long, 2 cm wide and 1 cm thick
what are the parts of the ovaries - what parts have the ovaries been subdivided into?
cortex and medulla
where do vessels that feed ovaries enter ovary?
enter medulla at hilum
what is the tunica albuginea of the ovaries?
is layer of dense connective tissue under epithelium
what part of the ovaries is the tunica albuginea in - the cortex or the medulla?
cortex
what make up the deeper aspects of cortex of ovaries?
interstitial tissue and ovarian follicles and their derivatives
how many stages do our professors divide oogenesis into and what are their names?
8 stages
1. embryonic
2. fetal
3. prepubertal
4. adult: growth of follicles
5. adult: preovulatory changes prepare mature or graafian follicle, also called dominant follicle for ovulation
6. adult: ovulation
7. adult: corpus luteum or yellow body forms from remains of follicle after ovulation
8. adult: corpus luteum dies
what happens in the embryonic stage of oogenesis?
1. eggs start as primordial germ cells in epithelial cell mass and proliferate at about 9-11 weeks to make OOGONIA (germ cells)
2. oogonia start meiosis at 11-18 weeks, freeze in diakinetic stage of prophase
3. developing eggs now called PRIMARY OOCYTES
what's the arrested stage of primary oocyte called?
dictyate stage
at what point do primary become secondary oocytes?
when they undergo first meiotic division just before ovulation
what happens in fetal stage of oogenesis in general terms?
limited folliculogenesis
what are substages of fetal stage of oogenesis?
1. primordial follicle stage
2. early primary follicle
3. late primary follicle
4. antral or secondary follicles
what happens more specifically in fetal stage of oogenesis?
1. in primordial follicle stage - there are some cells around primary oocyte - follicle considered inactive
2. at early primary follicle stage, follicles now have oocyte in them and are surrounded by cuboidal layer of cells called granulosa cells, support cells
3. in late primary follicle stage, a few follicles develop many layers of granulosa cells
primary oocyte enlarges, makes glycoprotein coat called zona pellucida that surrounds oocyte
4. antral or secondary follicle stage is when antrum develops - is basically when fluid and glycosaminoglycans accumulate tween granulosa cells forming fluid-filled cavity
what's an antrum?
is fluid-filled cavity when fluid's trapped between granulosa cells of follicle
what's a follicle?
is collection of cells with oocyte
what are granulosa cells
are cells that surround occyte initially
at the prepubertal stage, what kind of follicles are present?
only primordial and primary
what happens during prepubertal stage of oogenesis?
1. after birth, cystic or non-ovulatory follicles atrophy
2. ovary continuing to make late primary follicles from primoridal follicles, but only a few reach the antral stage
3. follicles that do reach antral stage atrophy almost immediately
what's the hormonal involvement in the development of early and late primary follicles?
none
how does a primary follicle become a dominant follicle?
only some primary follicles have FSH and LH receptors - dominant chosen from amongst those
when is a dominant follicle chosen?
around day 5-7 of cycle
how big do group of primary follicles get from which dominant follicle is chosen?
2-5 mm in diameter
at which stage in oogenesis cycle is a dominant follicle chosen to develop?
adult: growth of follicles stage
what's atresia?
is process of degeneration of follicles that developed along with dominant follicle
what's effect of initial rise in FSH on dominant follicle?
stimulates growth of granulosa cells and estrogen production by granulosa cells
where does estrogen that FSH stimulated at beginning of cycle come from?
granulosa cells of dominant follicle
what does estrogen do in kind to granulosa layer which made it?
stimulates growth of granulosa layer
at what point in the menstrual cycle does LH stimulate theca interna cells to make androgens?
almost to middle of cycle, about ovulation time
what cells make androgens as a result of LH stimulation just before ovulation?
theca interna
what cycle helps trigger LH and FSH surges that cause ovulation?
1. is cycle where LH stimulates theca interna cells, which are apparently outside the granulosa cells
2. theca cells make androgens that diffuse towards oocyte, becoming estrogen at granulosa cells
3. estrogen stimulates LH release
4. is positive feedback loop
what the hell is the theca interna?
is connective tissue layer surrounding follicle
has vasulature
what is a mural granulosa?
just another name for outermost granulosa cells of follicle once antrum's gotten bigger
what the hell is a cumulus or cumulus oophorus?
is layer of granulosa cells around ooctye once antrum's enlarged
what's the corona radiata?
is part of cumulus - but is innermost layer
just another fancy name for granulosa cells innermost and closest to oocyte
what's another name for cumulus?
cumulus oophorus
what's a connecting stalk?
is thing that attaches cumulus and mural layers of granulosa cells
what are the layers of the granulosa cells called once antrum enlarges?
innermost = corona radiata
middle = cumulus or cumulus oophous
outermost = mural granulosa as in wall
what's the follicle called once it moves closer to surface of ovary?
mature preovulatory follicle
how big is the mature preovulatory follicle?
about 20 mm!
what's another name for the mature preovulatory follicle?
Graafian follicle
what cells make progesterone after LH and FSH surges?
granulosa and thecal cells
what happens in the follicle as a result of the FSH surge?
1. glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production increases; this leads to conversion of epithelial cells into mucous-secreting cells, also called mucification
2. cumulus layer loosens leading to
3. final breakdown of follicular wall
4. vascularization of follicle increases
5. granulosa basal lamina breaks down
6. cumulus and mural granulosa cells start flowing into antrum
7. oocyte continues to mature
8. stigma forms on ovary surface
how does the follicle continue to mature as result of LH, FSH surge just prior to ovulation?
1. gap junctions between cumulus and oocyte gone - this removes meiotic inhibition
2. nucleus of oocyte moves peripherally
3. nuclear envelope breaks down, completing meiotic prophase I
4. spindle forms, oocyte divides forming large secondary oocyte and small first polar body
5. oocyte arrests again in metaphase II and will not continue unless fertilized
6. cortical granules move peripherally
what maintained meiotic inhibition over oocyte?
cAMP flowing from cumulus to oocyte via gap junctions
what are cortical granules?
exocytotic granule that's released immediately after fusion with sperm
what's a stigma?
is site of rupture of ovulating follicle on surface of ovary
what happens as result of ovulation or formation of a stigma?
1. thinning and stretching of tunica albuginea
2. local ischemia at stigma
3. death of surface cells as hydrolytic enzymes are released
what happens at ovulation to follicle and oviducts?
1. granulosa cells and follicular fluid released
2. cumulus cells ooze out, but oocyte follows more slowly
3. smooth muscle on interior of follicle contract, wrinkling follicle and aiding fluid and oocyte expulsion
4. contractions of smooth muscle in mesosalpinx sweep fimbriae of oviduct over ovary
this allows cilia to sweep egg and cumulus mass around it into osteum of oviduct
there are smooth muscle cells in the follicle?!
that's crazy
what's the function of the corpus luteum?
1. secrete progesterone and estrogen to stimulate uterus to allow implantation
2. reduce LH and FSH via negative feedback
what happens hormonally after ovulation?
progesterone skyrockets
LH and FSH drop and stay low
what happens to the corpus luteum after ovulation?
1. blood vessels from theca interna grow into granulosa
2. granulosa cells hypertrophy
3. mito of granulosa develop more villiform cristae
4. granulosa develop more peroxisomes and lysosomes as a result of hypertrophy i guess
5. both granulosa and thecal cells develop increased smooth ER
6. blood clot formed at ovulation invaded and reorganized by fibroblasts into connective tissue
does this mean that as follicles leave ovary, they become more and more scarred from greater formation of connective tissue?
don't know
after ovulation, what makes up the corpus luteum?
composed mostly of large granulosa lutein cells and patches of smaller theca lutein cells which are usually peripheral
what determines whether the corpus luteum survives after ovulation?
fertilization of egg
if have fertilization, it lives on
if egg fertilized, what hormone would maintain corpus luteum?
hCG - human chorionic gonadotropin
what structure makes hCG?
implanting blastocyst at first
what happens specifically to corpus luteum if egg not fertilized?
1. lutein cells commit suicide
2. macrophages invade corpus luteum to clean up cell and lipid debris
3. evolves into large, poorly vascularized connective tissue body called the corpus albicans or white body
what the hell is the corpus albicans?
is dead shell of corpus luteum
what's another name for corpus alicans?
white body
what happens to corpus luteum specifically if blastocyst implants?
cells continue to hypertrophy
progesterone production increases
what characterizes granulosa lutein cells if blastocyst implants?
abundant smooth ER and elaborate surface folds
what happens to corpus luteum after two months gestation?
placenta takes over progesterone production
corpus luteum declines either slowly or rapidly
how does primakoff summarize menstrual cycle in combination with follicle development?
1. initial increase in FSH works on granulosa cells which lead to more estrogen and more granulosa growth
2. positive feedback loop
3. little estrogen surge leads to more LH which leads to more androgen made in theca interna which leads to more estrogen
4. lots of estrogen leads to LH and FSH surge
5. ovulation leads to progesterone from corpus luteum which decreases LH and FSH
6. if no fertilization, progesterone drops, and FSH increases
what are the regions of the oviducts?
1. infundibulum
2. ampulla
3. isthmus
4. intramural portion
what is the infundibulum of oviduct?
is fimbriae or fringes and opening or osteum of oviduct
what is the ampulla of the oviduct?
is major region; where fertilization and most cleavage stages would occur
where is the isthmus of the oviduct?
is place of smaller diameter in oviduct, closer to uterus
where is the intramural portion of the oviduct?
is the intrauterine portion of oviduct in uterine wall
what's the function of the muscularis layer of the oviduct?
1. along with smooth muscle in mesosalpinx helps fimbriae find ovary
2. determines transport rate cleaving zygote moves from ampulla (spends 3 days there) through isthmus into intrauterine portion of oviducts (8 hours)
what's another name for the mucosa of the oviducts?
endosalpinx
describe the mucosa of the oviduct:
what kind of tissue is its epithelium?
what does it look like, at what point do structures change?
kind of tissue: simple columnar epithelium
characterized by vascular folds of thin connective tissue
folds tallest in infundibulum and ampulla
has both secretory and ciliated cells
number of cilia vary with time in cycle
at what point in the oviducts are the folds of mucosa tallest?
infundibulum and ampulla
at what point of menstrual cycle are epithelial cells of mucosa tallest and with the most cilia?
just before ovulation
what do the cilia in the oviduct do?
1. aid in pickup of ovum from surface of ovary
2. help with sperm orientation
3. may help with transport of ovum
what are the functions of the oviduct itself, not the cilia?
1. collects cumulus mass with secondary oocyte and pulls it into osteum
2. provides right environment for cleavage of embryo
3. moves egg and sperm
in what meiotic stage is oocyte at at ovulation?
metaphase II
when does the zona pellucida form?
don't know - fill in when i do
what's the plural form of corpus albicans?
corpora albicantia