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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the five pillars of Islam?
Prayer, Fasting, Alms, Pilgrimage, Faith
What is the shariah?
Set of islamic laws that originate or are directly stated in the Koran. Cannot be altered
What is the kanun?
Set of laws that are not addressed in the Koran. Fills in the gaps for the shariah.
What is a ghazi?
warriors for Islam
What are janissaries?
Elite soldiers of the sultan's army
What was the devshirme system?
The policy of taking children from conquered Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim soldiers.
Who was Osman?
A ghazi who established the Ottoman empire
Who was Timur the Lame?
A rebellious warrior from Samarkand who burned the city of Baghdad and defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Ankara.
Who was Mehmet II
Sultan who conquered Constantinope
Who was Selim the Grim?
Sultan who captured Mecca and Medina
What were Suleyman's four names?
Suleyman the Just, Suleyman the Lawmaker, Suleyman the Conqueror, Suleyman the Builder
What areas did the Ottoman Empire conqueror?
Eastern europe, North Africa, Middle East
Why was the Ottoman army so powerful?
-technology (gunpower)
-cannons as offensive weapon
-merit based leaders
-largest standing army
-unified faith
What was the millet system?
A collection of communities that were separate religions. Free to practice their own religions, governed themselves, reported to sultan
How did the Ottomans treat non-muslims?
-non muslim tax
-religious freedom (millet system)
-opportunities in government
Why did the Ottoman empire decline?
-Lost control of trade when navy was defeated
-Killed and imprisoned successors
-European expansion
-Over expansion
What modern day countries make up the Ottoman empire?
Greece, Hungary, Balkans, Algeria, Egypt, Tripoli, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia
What is the Din-i Ilahi?
the universal religion created by Akbar
What is Fatehpur Sikri?
capital city of the Mughal empire. abandoned because the water supply ran out.
Who was Babur?
founder of Mughal empire
Who was Akbar?
Mughal leader known for his religious tolerance and military power
What was the jizya?
tax on non-muslims
Who was Nur Jahan?
wife of Jahangir who took care of the affairs of the Mughal empire for 11 years
Who were the sikhs?
nonviolent religious gropu that blended Buddhism, Hinduism, and Sufism
Who was Shah Jahan?
leader of the Mughals who built the Taj Mahal for his wife Mumtaz Muhal
Who was Aurangzeb?
leader of Mughals who drained the resources of the empire with heavy taxes and military aggression
Where was the Mughal empire located?
What factors contributed to the decline of the Mughal empire?
-Aurangzeb drained resources
-Loss of loyalty
-Independent states
-Ineffective rulers
Who was Hongwu?
-first emperor of Ming dynasty
-agricultural reforms
-drove the Mongols out of China
Who was Yonglo?
-son of Hongwu
-commissioned the Ming voyages
Who was Zheng He?
admiral of the Ming voyages
What were the purposes of the Ming voyages?
-gain more countries in China's tribute system
-show off the wealth and power of China
What was the Forbidden city? What does it reveal about Chinese values?
-palace built for the emperor
-commoners and foreigners were not allowed inside
-highlights isolationism and strict social classes
Who were the Manchus?
people from Manchuria who invaded China and took over. became the Qing dynasty
Who was Kangxi?
-first emperor of Qing dynasty
-lowered government expenses
-offered intellectuals government positions
-lowered taxes
-scholar and patron of the arts
What were reasons for the decline of the Ming dynasty?
-ineffective rulers
-corrupt officials
-high taxes
-bad harvests
-rebellion and civil strife
How was the Qing dynasty able to control China?
-earned the people's espect by upholding Chinese beliefs and social structure
What were the daimyo?
warrior-chieftain lords of the Japanese feudal system
What was the shogun?
sole ruler of Japan
Examine the Japanese feudal system
(from highest to lowest)
Emperor- held highest rank in society but had no political power
Shogun- actual ruler
Daimyo- large landowners who were lords of feudal system
Samurai- loyal to daimyo and shogun, protected feudal estates
Peasants-4/5 of population
Artisans- craftspeople
Merchants- low status but gradually gained influence
Who was Oda Nobunaga?
-took capital of kyoto
-ruled empire by force
-committed seppuka (ritual suicide)
Who was Tokugawa Ieyasu?
-founded Tokugawa Shogunate
-defeated rivals
-founded Tokyo
How was Ieyasu able to unite Japan?
"alternate attendance policy"-- daimyos had to spend every other year in the capital. the years they were not in the capital, their families were held hostage
What was the influence of European traders on Japan?
-received new goods
-firearms changed samurai fighting and weaponry
-daimyo had to build castles
What was the influence of Christian missionaries on Japan?
-converted 300,000 japanese
-Ieyasu banned Christianity and persecued Christians
What was the purpose of the closed country policy?
exclude the missionaries and merchants from Japan
How did the closed country policy impact the development of China?
-developed into a self sufficient country
-shogun had monopolies on foreign trade
-europeans could not colonize or establish presence
What agricultural developments occurred during the Ming dynasty?
-introduction of champa rice
-crop rotaion
-population growth
Who was Henry of Navarre?
-first king of the bourbon dynasty in France
-converted to Catholicism
-Edict of Nantes
What was the Edict of Nantes?
granted religious freedom to Huguenots in France
Who was Cardinal Richelieu?
-forbid Protestant cities from having walls
-weakened nobles power
-involved France in 30 years war
Who was Cardinal Mazarin?
-ended 30 years war
-increased taxes
-strengthened central government
How did Cardinal Richelieu expand the power of the monarch in France?
-moved against protestants
-weakened noble's power
How did Louis XIV cause suffering to the French people?
-high taxes to finance his wars and extravagances
-constant warfare put France in even more debt
Who was Jen Baptiste Colbert?
Louis XIV's minister of finance who worked to make France self sufficient
How did Louis XIV control the French nobility?
Louis made the nobles live at his house, making them totally dependent on him and removing them from their homes
Who were boyars?
Russia's landowning nobles
Who were the Romanovs?
old boyar family, Anastasia was related to the Romanovs
Who was Ivan the Terrible?
-the first czar of Russia
-persecuted the boyars because of paranoia
What is westernization?
An adoption of the social, political, or economic institutions of the West, especially European or American countries
What was the Grand Embassy?
Peter the Great's journey to Western Europe
What was the Holy Synod?
A religious group Peter established to run the Russian Orthodox church under his direction
Why did Russia go to war with Sweden?
To gain a piece of the Baltic coast so that Peter could have a seaport to the West
What was St. Petersburg?
Capital of Russia established by Peter the Great
What were some reforms introduced by Peter the Great?
-First Russian newspaper
-Raised women's status
-Western clothing
-Church under state control (Holy Synod)
-Reduced power of great landowners
-Created professional army
Who were the Hohenzollerns?
The ruling family of Prussia
Who was Frederick William?
-ruler of Prussia
-built huge standing army
-weakened representative assemblies
-made Junkers officers in his army
What were Junkers?
Prussia's landowning nobility
How did the Hohenzollerns consolidate their power in Prussia?
-Created large army for protection
-Permanent taxation
-Won approval of nobility by making them officers in the army
What was the role of government according to Frederick the Great?
"The fundamental role of government is the principle of extending their territories."
Why did Prussia fight in the War of Austrian Succession?
To gain the Austrian land of Silesia
What was the result of the Seven Years' War?
No territorial change in Europe but France lost its colonies in North America.
How did the Hapburgs become absolute monarchs after the 30 years war?
-reconquered Bohemia (loyalty!)
-centralized government
-created standing army
-took Hungary from the Ottomans
What was Saxony?
Austrian ally that Frederick attacked in the Seven Years War
Who was Charles VI?
Hapsburg ruler of the Austrian empire
What challenges did the Hapsburgs face in ruling the Austrian empire?
-ruling a diverse assortment of people (Czechs, Hungarians, Italians, Germans)
-ensuring that Hapsburgs continued to rule the empire
How did Maria Theresa come to power?
Charles VI, in order to ensure that the Hapsburgs continued to rule the empire, made the other leaders of Europe sign an agreement that made Maria Therea heir.
What are the accomplishments of Maria Theresa?
-decreased power of nobility
-cared for the peasants
-allied with France in Seven Years War
What was the Treat of Aix-la-Chapelle?
Treaty where Maria Theresa lost Silesia to Prussia
What was Silesia?
Austrian land that produced iron ore, textiles, and food products
What were the causes of the 30 years War?
-formations of the Protestant Union and the Catholic League
-Ferdinand II closes Protestant churchs in Bohemia
-Protestants vs. Catholics in Germany
What were the terms of the Peace of Westphalia?
-weakened Hapsburg states Spain and Austria
-awarded German territory to France
-made German princes indepedent of the Holy Roman emperor
How did the Peace of Westphalia lay the foundation for modern Europe?
-ended religious wars in Europe
-new method of negotiation (all participants meet to settle problems of war and decide terms for peace)
-abandoned the of a Catholic empire that would rule Europe
-recognized Europe as a group of independent states
Who was James I?
-king of England after Elizabeht
-struggled with Parliament over money issues
-believe in the absolute power of king
-refused to make Puritan reforms
What were the main points of the Petition of Rights?
-no imprisonment of subjects without due cause
-no levy of taxes without Parliament's consent
-could not house soldieres in private homes
-no imposing martial law during peacetime
What were some causes of the English Civil War?
-Parliament passed laws to limit royal power
-Charles I opposes Parliament
Who were the Roundheads?
Puritan supporters of Parliament
Who were the Royalists/Cavaliers?
Supporters of Charles I
What was the outcome of the English Civil War?
-Charles was put on trial and executed
-Oliver Cromwell established a commonwealth, but eventually ruled as military dictator
Who was Oliver Cromwell?
Puritan general who led the Roundheads to victory in the English Civil War
What was the Restoration?
the period of Charles II's rule over England after the collapse of Oliver Cromwell's government
Who was Charles II?
-king after Cromwell
-restored English monarchy
-theater, sports, and dancing
-habeas corpus
What was habeas corpus?
Law that said a monarch could not put someone in jail for opposing the ruler and prisoners could not be held indefinitely without trial
Who were the tories?
Group who supported Charles II's brother James as heir to the throne
Who were the whigs?
Group who opposed Charles II's brother James as heir to the throne
Who was James II?
-Catholic king of England
-appointed Catholics to high office
What were the causes of the Glorious Revolution?
Protestants feared that James II would start a line of Catholic kings
What was the Glorious Revolution?
the bloodless overthrow of the English king James II and his replacement by William and Mary
What were the main points of the Bill of Rights?
-No suspending of Parliamen's laws
-No levying of taxes without a specific grant from Parliament
-No interfering with freedom of speech in Parliament
-No penalty for a citizen who petitions the king about grievances
What is a constitutional monarchy?
a monarchy in which the ruler's power is limited by law
How did the Glorious Revolution lead to the establishment of a constitutional monarch in England?
When William and Mary overthrew James II, they agreed that Parliament would be their partner in governing