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26 Cards in this Set

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Persian front
-No major wars between Ottomans and Safavids as the Safavids were trying to regain power
-Safavids occupied Baghdad under 'Abbas from 1623-1638
-Murad IV did regain Baghdad in 1638 and created peace, why he was known as the last of the GREAT
Treaty of Westphalia 1648
-Treaty of Westphalia: 1648, ended the Thirty Years War between the Holy Roman Empire, Germany, France, Sweden.
Treaty of Carlowitz 1699
-Treaty of Carlowitz: 1699, Ottomans are losers. This was the 1st time. Concluded Austro-Ottoman War. Ottomans ceded Hungary and parts of Bosnia Herzegovina. They had occupied Kosovo and Nicopolis for over 300 years. Beginning of Ottoman decline in E. Europe and the Hasburgs became dominant in SE Europe.
Treaty of Passarovitz 1718
-Treaty of Passarowitz: 1718 between Ottomans and the Habsburgs of Austria and Venice. Ottomans lost Belgrade and other parts of Bosnia.
Russian Front
peter the Great had occupied the silk producing area of North Iran. This affected the flow of silks to Aleppo (where the Road ended)
-French also had a port/interest in Aleppo
Biggest weakness of Sultan: the revolts of salaried troops
-Janissaries: Comprised infantry units that formed the Sultan’s household troops and bodyguard. Had been crucial in overturning Mamluk rule and wars vs. Austria. Always had a share of the booty. In 1683, Mehmet IV could abolish devshirme (taxed and hired soldiers). Known as the Terror of Europe, wanted better payment. Rebelled against Uthman II in 1622. Losing territories to the north and did not participate in Greek war of independence. Fought against sipahs and Mahmud II confiscated their possessions in the “Auspicious Incident”
Other of the Sultan's weaknesses
-Absence of Conquest
-Conspiracy in place since 1617 about oldest member of dynasty chosen as Sultan
-Polarization between the Grand Vezir and the Kizlar Agha and this affected the appointent of governors in provinces
Diminishing Revenue
-Absence of conquest meant less plunder and loss of territory meant loss of mines and tax
-Feudal troops coveted tax farms
-Tax farmers were staying in office for more than a year which forced the government to legalize a "Malikane" system which made tax farming for life
Financial strains
-Diversion of trade routes to Cape of Good Hope
-Salaried officials doing nothing
-Silver and gold from the New World into the Ottoman Empire. -Harsh impact of the importation of bullion from the New World. This led to a devaluation of Ottoman currency and deflation
Yemeni Revolts
-Debasement of Currency
-Split up from Ottoman Rule under Zaydi Imam in 1635
-Salaried troops import illegal troops to make up for salary
Egyptian revolts
-Devaluation of currency 1585
-COuntryside troops who are poorly paid and firecely fighting
-Lot of space to revolt
-"Prevent Arab speaking Egyptians from enrolling in the Army'
Syrian Military Mutinies
-Devaluation of currency
-Mutinous troops: high ranking Janissaries and North of Arab origins
-Govt killed mutinous leaders
-Hiring of alien Janissary chiefs allowed local Damascenses to penetrate the Janissary Corps and later control them
Mamluk rule in Baghdad
-Took over power in 1747 and were employed as Ottoman governors
-With Jalili governors of Mosul, they defended Iraq against internal and external attacks (Iran, Kurds, Bedouin, etc.)
Sulayman Pasha the Great
Mamluk Governor who ruled Baghdad from 1780-1802. Established authority against Bedouin and Kurdish tribes in Baghdad. Repelled Wahhabi-Saudi attacks on Karbala. Reformed similar to Selim III.
Da'ud Pasha (Last Mamluk Governor)
who was the last of nine Mamluk Governors who ruled Baghdad from 1816-1831. Established a modern army after Sultan eliminated Janissaries in 1826.
Yemeni revolt
-Zaydi Imams who became independent 1635-1872
Aleppo Revolt of 'Ali Pasha Janbulad
-1605-1607
-Time of excessive population and lack of economic resources, rebels sold their services as mercenaries
Revolt of Fakhr al-Din Ma'n, the Amir of Mt. Lebanon
-Hizbollah is the party of G-d
-Ma'n Druze family were invited by Ottomans in 1516 to be paramount chieftans in Mt. Lebanon
-Allied with Janbulad
-Had a lot of silk resources in the Druze region and he traded these with the Medicis of Tuscany
European Middle Eastern apathy and continued Ottoman military decline
-Treaties of Carlowitz and Passarowitz
-Europe busy w/a lot of wars: Austrian Wars of Succession/Seven Years War between France and Britain
-French Revolution
-Ottoman reform began by Selim III who was assasinated
-Janissaries eliminated by Sultan 1826
Treaty of Jassy
signed at Jassy in Moldavia (modern Iaşi, Romania), was a pact between the Russian and Ottoman Empires ending the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–92 and confirming Russia's increasing dominance in the Black Sea.
Emergence of local families of notables as governors: History of Azm Family
-Azm Family became tax farmers for life in the rich region of Hamah, supported by the Grand Vizier
-Got rich by trading with the Grand Vizier and was appointed to Syrian provinces between 1720 and 1812
Peak of 'Azm Power: As'ad Pasha
-Governor of Syria 1743-1757
-He ensured security with the Damascene Pilgrim Caraban to the Hijaz and he was tolerated in office
-As'ad Pasha was deposed because of antagonism between the Grand Vizier and Kizler Agha in 1757
Damascene Caravan's importance
-One of 2 caravans authorized to go to Mecca in the whole Ottoman Empire
-Ottoman Sultan was servitor of the 2 Holy Sancturaies
Strucutre of caravan
-In 1708, the Command of the Pilgrimmage was entruseted to the governors of Damascus
-20,000 pilgrims gather in Damascus
-Waqf help pay for brinbes to the Bedouins to ensure safe passage
-Taxes on pilgrims, specialized guilds for transportation
Threats to the Caravan
-Natural floods
-Bedouin who were given two sums of money, one each way
Economic/social importance of Caravan
-Helps people who rent the camels plus the merchants who use them
-Pilgrims from the Balkans and Turkey went to the Hijaz by sea, steamships made this possible but this badly affected the economy of Damascus.