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26 Cards in this Set

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Araceae

Inflorescence a giveaway: a spadix subtended by a spathe

Hemiepiphyte

Anthurium(shown): large marginal collecting vein reticulate netlike venation and reflexed (folds back) spathe

Philodendron: NO marginal collecting vein, lateral veins parallel
What is this plant?
Arecaceae {Palm) Family

Trees or Shrubs - NO branches
Small tooth in center (hastula)
What is the family?
Bromeliceae (Bromiliad Family)

Leaves simple alternate and spirally arranged
Straplike and stiff
Often a cuplike rosette
Prickles at edge of leaf
What is this family?
What is this family?
Cecropiaceae

Latex
Palmately Lobed Leaves; peltate (Look at the picture) -- the leaves are actually all one lobed peltate leaf.
What is this family?
Clusiaceae

Leaves simple, oppopsite, entire (no serration, just normal margins)

Terminal 2 leaves fused together, hiding apical meristem
Often copious latex: yellow, orange, or white

Clusia spp (shown): leaves fleshy, obovate with rounded apex.
Latex white or yellow
Costaceae (Spiral Gingers)

-Leaves spirally arranged
-No stipules
-Closed leaf sheaths
What is this family?
Cyclanthaceae

-Leaves simple; alternate; most are bifid (2-cleft as in a hoof)
-Stemless (or reallly reduced)
-Can look like dwarf palms
-Can be epiphytic

Carludovica: terrestrial w/ 4-LOBED leaves w/o hastula

Asplundia: terrestrial/epiphytic w/ bifid leaves - main genus

Cyclanthus - terrestrial; unique in having thickened midrib in each bifid
What is this family?
What is this family?
Heliconiaceae

-Asymmetrical Leaf Base
-Leaves tear easily

*The picture here is NOT heliconiaceae but is an example of what I mean by an "asymmetrical leaf base"
Marantaceae (Prayer Plant)

- Like heliconiaceae but DOES NOT tear easily
- S-shaped secondary veination
-Pulvinis that changes turgor pressure
-Pulvinus= discoloration, swelling at the base; torqued at petiole apex
What is this family?
Melastomataceae

-Easiest to recognize because of characteristics leaf veintation: 1-4 pairs of veins arcuately parallel to the midvein; and crossveins perpendicular to the midvein
-Simple, opposite leaves
-Stamens modified (often have bent anthers)
What is the family?
Moraceae

-Terminal Sheathing stipule that leaves circular scar marks all over twigs
-Milky latex
-Brachidodromous

Ficus- Strangler fig -- most are hemi-epiphytic stranglers; leaves are 3-veined at base; latex copious; fruit a synconium
What is this family?
Orchidaceae

- 3-merous flowers with one petal modified into a lip or labellum
-Stem often a pseudobulb
-Mostly epiphytic
What family is this?
Passifloraceae

-Mostly vines and liana, some trees and shrubs
-Characteristic axillary tendril coming out at 45 degree angle
-Easy to determine when in flower
What family is this?
Piperaceae

-Strong peppery odor
-Oblique base (asymmetrical)
-Swollen, Jointed Nodes
-Shrubs or herbs or epiphytes

Piper: mostly shrubby, peppery odor, asymmetrical leaf bases and leaf-opposed densely spical infloresence

Peperomia: A large genus; somewhat succulent, epiphytic herbs lacking odor

Pothomorphie: Branched inflorescence and broad palmately veined leaves
What family is this?
Rubiaceae - Coffee Family

-Leaves simple, opposite, entire
-Interpetiolar stipules between leaves
What is this family?
Rutaceae (Citrus)

-Easily recognizable by:
1) Pungent Citrus like aroma when crushed
2) Translucent dots on leaves
-Herbs to Tree
-Leathery leaves

Citrus: Translucent dots, Aroma, Winged petioles, classic citrus fruit
Zanthoxylurn: Odd-pinnately compound leaves and prickles on trunk. Sometimes prickles on leaves. Margins are generally serrate.
What is this family?
Solanaceae Tomato/potato/eggplant family

- 5-merous
- 5 stames that are sometimes closely appressed.
- Odorus (tomato like or strong rank odor)
What is this family?
Zingiberaceae

-Usually strong sweet ginger-like odor
- Large leaved monocots
- 2-ranked leaves as in picture above
- Usually glabrous (no hair)
- Large elliptical leaves usually
What family is this?
Apocynaceae (Dogbane/Milkweed) Family

- COPIOUS white Latex
- Five-merous flowers
- Simple, opposite leaves
- Habit highly variable: herbs to trees, some vines and lianas too.
What is this family?
Describe the Boraginaceae family
-Mostly herbaceous but there are a few important woody tree and shrub genera in the tropics
-Leaves simple and alternate
-Stiff pubescent leaves with entire margins
-Distinctive dichotomous branching style of main tree genus (Cordia)
What are the general characteristics of the fabaceae family?
What are the three subfamilies?
-Mostly compound (usually (bi)pinnately)
-Leaflets entire/alternate
-Petioles and petiolules with well-differentiated cylindrical swollen pulvini
-The three subfamilies are:
1)Faboideae
2)Caesalpinioideae
3) Mimosoideae
Describe the Faboideae subfamily
-Typical sweet-pea flower with 2 fused keel petals, 2 wings petals and 1 banner petal
-Leaves usually odd-pinate or trifoliate= 3 leaflets
Describe the three genus!!
1) Erythrina: Distinctive genus w/ trifoliate leaves. Trunks sometimes with armature of prickles.
2) Gliricidia sepium: has fleshy rhombic leaflets with chemical-like odor and blue-green color
3)Dipteryx panamensis: Common, one-seeded fruit eaten by macaws and other critters
Describe Caesalpinioideae
-Flower generally NOT pea-like; open w/ 2 keel petals, 2 wing petals and 1 banner petal which is INNERMOST unlike Faboideae
-Leaves are usually EVEN-pinnate
Describe the THREE genera:
1) Bauhinia: Unique in bifid (or cleft) leaves resembling a cow's hoof. Some species are lianas while others are shrubs.
2) Caesalpinia:Spiny, yellow, showy flowers
3)Hymenaea: Weird tree with bifoliate leaves making it easy to pick out; bole smooth and grey
4)Parkinsonia: Shrubby tree species that is often spiny, with tiny almost vestigial leaflets and green photosynthetic rachis; growth form resembling a willow
Mimosoideae
-Flowers distinctive with many long stamens
-Infloresence looks like a barber's shaving brush for putting on shaving cream (think old school)
-Leaves generally bipinnately compound
INGA Spp.= Once-pinnate leaves ,glands between the leaflet pairs and a rachis which is often winged.
PENTACLETHRA MACROLOBA!!!!= Bipinnately compound leaves, lacking petiolar glands.
Malvaceae
-Leaves simple alternate
-Plants usually have a mucilagenous sap
-Palmately veined leaves
-Sometimes palmately lobed leaves
-Margins entire or toothed
-Leaves usually palmately veined with STELLATE TRICHOME HAIRS
-FLOWERS are DIAGNOSTIC: 5-merous with stamens fused into a TUBE
-Stigmas emerge from center of tube and are usually swollen
Genera!
1) Hibiscus: Shrubs with large flowers, serrate leaves and palmate venation
2)Malvaviscus: Similar to Hibiscus but has bright red flowers that are rolled into a tube
3) Sida: Common large and weedy genus found in disturbed habitats (esp. pastures, etc.). Leaves not palmately veined, serrate, yellow flowers
Describe Tiliaceae
-Structurally similar to Malvaceae since they are now all Malvaceae
-Alternate leaves with stellate trichomes, almost always has serrate leaves, generally 3-veined at base
Genera:
1) Luehea: Asymmetric serrate pentagonal shaped leaf w/ palmate venation. Underside of leaves tan brown.
2) Apeiba: Classic leaves with large fruit w/ armature of 'spines'