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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Establishment Clause
Government can not favor one religion over another or favor religion over no religion.

Prohibits Congress from passing laws respecting the establishment of religion.
Free Exercise Clause
Prohibits the government from interferring with the practice of religion or prohibiting the free exercise of religion.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Equal access to public facilities, no job discrimination
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Ended racial barriers to voting
Reasonable Basis Test
Can be justified
Examples: when you can drive, vote, drink, get drafted, etc.
Laws are constitutional.
Strict Scrutiny Test
Can NOT be justified.
Laws are unconstitutional.
Intermediate Scrutiny Test
May be justified.
Example: firefighters
Some are constitutional, some are not.
De Jure Discriminaion
Based on the LAW
De Facto Discrimination
Based on SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, and CULTURAL practices
Civil Rights Movement
Seeks equal rights
Civil Liberties
Focuses on personal/individual freedoms
Civil Rights
Focuses on groups and discrimination and equal opportunities
Block Grant
Does not have to specify what it will be spent on, but must be spent on a certain category of things.
Cetagorical Grants
Must specify beforehand what the money will be spent on.
Revenue Sharing
Does not exist anymore.
Enumerated Powers
Powers to NATIONAL government
-Provide for a common defense
-Declare war
-National currency
-Regulate foreign commerce
-Create a national court system
-Postal system
Implied Powers
Reserved Powers
Powers to STATE government
-If the powers are not yet enumerated to the nation


-If the powers are not prohibited from the state

Examples: Education, traffic laws... are are up to the states.
Concurrent Powers
Powers shared by the NATIONAL and STATE governments
-Law enforcement
-The power of government to condemn private property- you'll still get money for it (iminant domain). Take your property, pay your property, pay you, then give the land to buy things for the general public.
Prohibited Powers
Both levels
-Granting titles of nobility
-ex post facto laws
-states coining their own money
People govern
A few people control
One person controls
What are the core values in American political culture?
Americans vs. Europeans:
-College-education population
-Tax rates
-Attitudes on success
-College-eduaaction population: American % > European %
-Tax rates: American tax < European tax
-Attitudes on success: Americans have limited access
Definition of political culture
The characteristic and deep-seated beliefs of a particular people.
The idea that the majority prevails not only in elections, but also in policy determination.
A theory of American Ploitics that holds society's interests are substantially represented through the activities of groups.
The view that the United States essentially is run by a tiny elite (compopsed of wealthy or well connected individuals) who control public policy through both direct and indirect means.
Thomas Hobbes
SOCIAL CONTRACT- A voluntary agreement by individuals to form government, which is then obliged to act within the confines of the agreement.

-Ordinary people surrender the freedom they would ahve in a state of nature for their protection of a soverign ruler can provide

-Give up freedom to have one ruler, even if the ruler is bad.
John Locke
Natural rights: Life, liberty, and property

-If government takes these away, you can create a new government.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
-Opposed absolute rule
-The only legitimate government is one that serves the general will (the people's common interest)
-People are innocent and happy in their natural state
Articles of Confederation
States should have more power vs. national government
Shay's Rebellion
People realized their government wasn't strong enough.
Didn't want the new constitution.

-Wanted the Bill of Rights so that the states would hold power instead of the national government.