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183 Cards in this Set

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Took Christianity from Ireland to Scotland
Columba
Ireland monestary island
Iona
Took Christianity from Scotland to Northeran England
Aiden
Took Christianity from Scotland to Continent
Coumban
Ireland nickname
“The Island of Saints and Scholars”
Transmitter of wisdom of ancient world to medieval world
Gregory I (The Great)
Most important of Eastern theologians
John of Damascus
John of Damascus Hymns
The Day of Ressurection
Filioque Controversy: Eastern church says
The Father is principle: begets Son/breaths Spirit
Filioque Controversy: Western church says
Father begets Son and BOTH breath Spirit
Italian monk who became archbishop of Canterbury
Anselm
Like a bridge from the old to the new approach to theology
Anselm
Used an older devotional approach to theology but combined it with the new scholastic approach
Anslm
Wrote in the form of a prayer but used rationality and logic
Anselm
Cistercian monk who was major figure of Middle Ages
Bernard of Clairvaux
“Last of the Church Fathers”
Bernard of Clairvaux
“Uncrowned Emperor of Europe”
Bernard of Clairvaux
Seemed to have more influence than any king of pope of his time
Bernard of Clairvaux
Bernard of Clairvaux as Reformer
Wrote “On Consideration”
“Lordship is forbidden ministry is bidden”
Bernard of Clairvaux
“Doctor Mellifluous”
Bernard of Clairvaux
Pasce verbo pasce vita
Feed with the Word and your life
Feed with the Word and your life
Pasce verbo pasce vita
Bernard of Clairvaux as Preacher
Pasce verbo pasce vita Doctor Melllifluous – Doctor whose words are like honey
Bernard of Clairvaux as Mystic
“On loving God”
Bernard of Clairvaux as Theologian
“On Grace and Free Choice”
Work in which Bernard of Clairvaux showed himself a true Augustinian
”On Grace and Free Choice”
Greatest work on grace in the 900 years between Augustine and Bradwedine
Bernard of Clairvaux “On Grace and Free Choice”
Bernard of Clairvaux as Hymn Writer
“Jesu Thou Joy of Loving Hearts” and “Jesus the Very Thought of Thee”
“The Prince of Scholasticism”
Thomas Aquinas
Scholasticism culminated with
Thomas Aquinas in 13th century
Describe Summa Contra Gentiles
Aquinas’ book on Apologetics: chiefly philosophical but also theological emphasis
Describe Summa Theologiae
Aquinas’ book on Theology: chiefly theological but also philosophical emphasis
Faith and reason are independent but complementary
Thomas Aquinas
You understand some through faith and some through reason
Thomas Aquinas
Aquinas had an incomplete view of the fall
According to Francis Schaeffer
John Duns Scotus known as
“The Subtile Doctor”
“The Subtile Doctor”
John Duns Scotus known as
Proponant of Voluntarism
John Duns Scotus
The primary characteristic of God isn’t how He thinks but what He chooses to do
Voluntarism – held by John Duns Scotus
The Divine will takes precedence over the Divine intellect
Voluntarism John Duns Scotus
Critical of Aquinas’ philosophy in attempting to harmonize Aristotle with Christianity
John Duns Scotus
Argued that faith was a matter of will and could not be supported by logical proofs
John Duns Scotus
His ideas had the effect of pulling apart rationality and faith
John Duns Scotus
“Doctor Profundus”
Thomas Bradwardine
Archbishop of Canterbury in 1349
Thomas Bradwardine
Influenced Wycliffe
Thomas Bradwardine
Died of plague after being archbishop for only 40 days
Thomas Bradwardine
“On the Cause of God Against the Pelagians”
Thomas Bradwardine
Attacked Pelagianism and stressed God’s grace and irresistible will as the cause of events
Thomas Bradwardine
Paved the way for later development of the doctrine of predestination
Thomas Bradwardine
Helped begin the recovery of a full Augustinism
Thomas Bradwardine
Seven medieval Roman Catholic sacraments
Baptism - Confirmation – Eucharist – Penance - Extreme Unction – Marriage - Ordination
Dr Invincibilis
William of Ockham
William of Ockham
Dr Invincibilis
Investiture controversy was struggle between
Papacy and Holy Roman Empire in late 11th early 12th
Main opponants in Investiture controversy
Gregory VII and Henry IV
Scholasticism was
The theology and philosophy taught in the medieval schools from the 11th to 14th centuries which tried to reconcile faith with reason and philosophy with revelation.
Scholasticism tried to reconcile
faith with reason and philosophy with revelation.
Concerned with demonstrating the reasonableness of the faith and defending it against critics
Scholasticism
Used a dialectical method based on Aristotelian Logic
Scholasticism
During this period theology came to be known as the “Queen of Sciences”
Period of Scholasticism
Much of the work of Scholasticism was done
Much of the work was done in the service of a church that had moved away from the authority of scripture
Theology was center stage but abstract and moving away from the church – monastery – and people
Scholasticism
Emphasized love and virture over learning and knowledge
Medieval mysticism
Three main themes of medieval mystics
Union with God – love for Christ – denial of self
Mystics sought union with and absorption into God in a way that resembles
Pantheism
Positive aspect of Mysticism
Concern for loving God and for quietness and humility
Danger of mysticism
Making faith too much of individual matter and tendency toward works righteousness
Expressed itself as the revival of human learning and rebirth of classicism
Medieval humanism
Emphasised the essential goodness and greatness of the human nature
Medieval humanism
Was at times anti-institutional church
Medieval humanism
A benefit of Medieval humanism
Revival of classical languages that benefited biblical studies
Via antiqua
The old wayof doing philosophy and theology – Thomas Acquinas and Duns Scotus
Via moderna
The new way way of doing philosophy and theology – William of Ockham
Nominalism is
A philosophical school of thought which says that universals are just names existing only in the human mind and are unnecessary.
A famous nominalist
William Ockham
Ockham’s razor
Things should be kept as simple as possible – less assumptions are better.
Nominalists grant
No universality to mental concepts outside the mind.
Movement based around the writings of Thomas a Kempis and the Brothers of the Common Life.
Modern Devotion
Stressed meditation and the inner life
Modern Devotion
Attached little importance to ritual and external works
Modern Devotion
Dwongraded the highly speculative spirituality of the 13th and 14th centuries in favor of quiet meditation
Modern Devotion
Three Ages of Early Church History
Jewish Christianity/ Christianity of Roman Empire/ Conversion of Pagan Northern Europe
Sometimes called the first Protestants
Waldensians
Like a light shining in the darkness of the 12th century
Waldensians
Waldo was
Wealthy merchant from Lyons
Waldo began preaching
c. 1170
Waldensians ended up moving to
Mountains between Italy and France
Opposed Donation of Constantine
Waldensians
Albigensians called
Cathari
Cathari called
Albigensians
Albigansians were
Heretical dualistic/gnostic movement in southern France in 12th/13th centuries
Like Manichiesm
Albigansians/Cathari
Dualistic Gnostic heresy
Albigansians/Cathari
Heresy southern France
Albigansians/Cathari
14th century followers of Wycliffe
Lollards
Taught piety as requirement for priests
Lollards
Authority of scripture over authority of priests
Lollards
“Church of the saved” is community of faithful
Lollards
Taught form of predestination
Lollards
Advocated apostolic poverty
Lollards
Advocated taxation of church properties
Lollards
Denied transubstantiation in favor of consubstantiation
Lollards
Hussites were powerful group in
Bohemia and Moravia
Four Articles of Prague demanded
Freedom of preaching – communion of both kinds for laity – limitation of church property holding – civil punishment for mortal sin
Argued for real presence
Radbertus
Argued for spiritual presence
Ratranmus
Scholastic Theologian who wrote Four Books of Sentences
Peter Lombard
Collected references from many sources and tried to come up with an understanding of theology
Peter Lombard
Became standard theological text for the middle ages
Four Books of the Sentences – Lombard
True late medieval theologian
William of Ockham
Defended Christian Doctrine of Freedom and Omnipotence of God
William of Ockham – Via Moderna
God has absolute power and is unknowable
William of Ockham – Via Moderna
Salvation based on God’s covenant AND merit
William of Ockham – Via Moderna
Divorce between faith and reason
William of Ockham – Via Moderna
Franciscan nominalist
William of Ockham
Gregory VII was
Hildebrand
Believed Pope could give and take away empires
Hildebrand
Everyone owed him acknowledgement
Hildebrand
Credited with reform in the church – doing away with financial and moral corruption
Hildebrand
Fought against Henry IV about lay investiture
Hildebrand
First pope to impose his authority on church in general
Leo IX 11th cent
Excommunicated patriarch and eastern Christians in 1054
Leo IX 11th cent
Set out immediately after his election to realize his ideal as ecclesiastical ruler of the world with some political power
Innocent III
“Just as the moon...”
Innocent III
“Father of English History”
Bede
Missionary from Rome to Britton
Bede
Evangelized Anglo Saxon invaders
Bede
Ecclesiastical History of the English People
Bede
Theme of providence and predestination with RC emphasis on merit
Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People
Benedictine Monk/Scholar of 8th cent
Alcuin of York
Head of Charlamagne’s palace school at Aachen
Alcuin of York
Charlamagne’s palace school was at
Aachen
People from all over the continent came to be taught by him
Alcuin of York
Saw to it that classical and Christian patristic texts were copied using a standardized style of handwriting
Alcuin of York
Alcuin of York standardized style of handwriting called
“Carolingian minuscule”
Scholastic theologian of 11th/12th century who had love affair with his student Heloise
Peter Abelard
Heloise was niece of
Canon of cathedral in Paris
Said by doubting we question and by questioning we come to truth
Peter Abelard
Sic et Non
Peter Abelard
Dominican monk who came to Florence in 1482
Savonarola
Prior of San Marco
Savonarola
His Lenten sermons in the Duomo moved the whole city
Savonarola
Medici overthrown in
1494
Excommunicated by Pope Alexander VI in 1497
Savonarola
Hanged and burned in Florence
Savonarola
Patrick was
English or Scotish
Patrick grew up
In 5th century – a Romanized Briton
Missionary to Britton sent by Gregory the Great to evangelize the Angles and the Saxons
Augustine of Canterbury
Established center at Canterbury
Augustine of Canterbury
Conflict with older Roman Church in Briton over things like the date of Easter and the shape of monks haircuts
Augustine of Canterbury
Solved at Synod of Whitby
Conflict with older Roman Church in Briton over things like the date of Easter and the shape of monks haircuts
British missionary to the Frisians
Willibrord
Frisia was
Today’s Belgium/Holland
British missionary to Germany
Boniface
“The Apostle To Germany”
Boniface
Cut down oak tree to demonstrate God’s superiority over Thor
Boniface
Missionaries from Constantinople sent to preach in Moravia
Cyril and Methodius
Moravia is present day
Austria
Produced alphabet and translated bible into
Slovanik
Cyril and Methodius translated bible into
Slovanik
Born in Spain on Island of Majorca
Raymond Lull
Greatest missionary of 13th cent.
Raymond Lull
Learned Arabic
Raymond Lull
Morning Star of the Reformation
John Wycliffe
The Jewel of Oxford
John Wycliffe
Name 14th cent mystics
Walter Hilton
Name 15th cent mystic
Thomas a Kempis
Name 13th/14th cent mystic
Johannes “Meister” Eckhart
Name 14th/15th cent mystic
Julian of Norwich
Great missionaries of the counter reformation
Jesuits
Sent missionaries to East Asia America and Protestant N Europe in 16th cent
Jesuits
Greatest missionary of 13th cent.
Raymond Lull
Learned Arabic
Raymond Lull
Morning Star of the Reformation
John Wycliffe
The Jewel of Oxford
John Wycliffe
Name 14th cent mystics
Walter Hilton
Name 15th cent mystic
Thomas a Kempis
Name 13th/14th cent mystic
Johannes “Meister” Eckhart
Name 14th/15th cent mystic
Julian of Norwich
Great missionaries of the counter reformation
Jesuits
Sent missionaries to East Asia America and Protestant N Europe in 16th cent
Jesuits