Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In what conditions would you hear a systolic ejection murmur?
valvular aortic stenosis
idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis
pulmonic stenosis
When would you hear a flow murmur?
fever, anemia, exercise, pregnancy, large stroke volume (bradycardia, complete heart block, aortic regurgitation)
When would you hear a pansystolic murmur?
mitral regurgitation
tricuspid regurgitation
Diastolic murmurs?
aortic regurgitation (blowing, decrescendo, high-pitched, pandiastolic)
mitral stenosis (opening snap?)
When do you hear a wide split of S2?
ASD, pulmonic stenosis, RBBB, RV overload (pulmonary embolus)
When do you hear a paradoxical split of S2?
What is pulsus alternans and when do you hear it?
variations in blood pressure associated with alternating weak and strong LV contractions; in severe LV dysfunction (CHF)
What is a positive Kussmaul sign and when do you see it?
JVP increases with inspiration; CHF
What are the ST changes in stable angina, Prinzmetal's variant, and MI?
stable angina - ST depression
Prinzmetal - ST elevation
MI - ST elevation & T-wave inversion with Q-wave development - transmural
OR ST depression without Q-wave development
How long after an MI would the patient experience a rupture?
1-7 days
What is Dressler syndrome?
postinfarction pericarditis.. it's autoimmune and occurs 2-10 wks after MI
What are the five major criteria for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever?
migratory polyarthritis
Sydenham's chorea
erythema marginatum
subcutaneous nodules
What is marantic endocarditis?
a paraneoplastic syndrome
sterile vegetations on the mitral valve associated with mucin-producing tumors of the colon and pancreas
also associated with DIC
Discuss the stages of compensation in shock.
compensated stage - reflex tachycardia and peripheral vasoconstriction (cold, clammy, pale extremities)
decompensated stage - initial compensation isn't enough CO; decreased BP, increased tachycardia, metabolic acidosis, respiratory distress, decreased renal output
irreversible - coma and death
Which valve abnormality presents with bounding pulses and a wide pulse pressure?
aortic regurgitation
What is Fiedler's myocarditis? Rheinhard's?
idiopathic myocarditis with eosinophilic infiltrate with giant cell and granuloma formation; rheinhard's - extensive eosinophilic infiltration
What causes myocardial pseudocysts?
Chagas' disease* (T. cruzi) and toxoplasmosis
*Romana sign - unilateral swelling of the eyelid
Describe dilated cardiomyopathy. What are the clinical features? Complications? Etiologies?
decreased contractility, stasis, mural thrombi
progressive CHF, thromboembolism, arrhythmia
pregnancy-induced nutritional, hypertensive, volume, or metabolic abnormalities; alcohol tox, genetic, postviral infection (*there's a GAPP in my heart so it's DILATED)
Describe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. What are the clinical features? Complications? Etiologies?
asymmetrical hypertrophy of the ventricular septum, causing obstruction of the LV outflow tract, LV>RV, dilated atria
dyspnea, angina, a-fib, syncope, sudden death, mural thrombi, CHF
genetic, catecholamine hypersensitivity, ischemia, primary collagen disorder
What are the causes of restrictive cardiomyopathy?
cardiac amyloidosis, sarcoidosis

*rheumatoid arthritis! AA
What is the most common location of a myxoma?
left atrium
What is the most common primary cardiac tumor in kids and what systemic disease is the tumor associated with?
tuberous sclerosis
What neoplasms are most likely to metastasize to the heart? Which layer of the heart is usually involved?
bronchogenic carcinoma, lymphoma from regional nodes
Emboli from venous circulation vs. emboli from arterial circulation.
venous - involve pulmonary circulation **may involve systemic circulation via a cardiac shunt (ASD)
arterial - 75% from mural thrombi due to MI; usually affect legs, then brain, other viscera, and arms