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17 Cards in this Set

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What is fucose?
a. Fucose is a deoxy monosaccharide derivative that we form from deoxymannose
what two systems must have fucose?
c. Fucose in critical to the notch system as well as the selectin system.
What 3 mushrooms contain fucose?
d. Reishi, Maitake and Shiitake mushrooms contain fucose
True or False: Galactose is synthesized by an epimerase
True
True or False: Human milk has more lactose than any other mamal.
True
What is most abundant protein in milk
Alpha-lactalbumin
3. Why does human milk contain more different kinds of oligosaccharides and much higher amounts of these oligosaccharides than the milk of other mammals?
a. Indigestible oligosaccharides are thought to feed intestinal bacteria.
b. 2’Fucosyllactose is most abundant (bacteria free fucose)
c. Decoy receptor for toxins and pathogens
What is sialic acid
Amino sugar
What purpose does sialic acid serve in the body?
c. Sialic acid Encompasses a large family of cell surface carbohydrates
5. What pathway is used to form amino sugars and where does the nitrogen group come from?
a. Hexosamine pathway
b. Glutamine
6. What is glucuronic acid, how do we form it and why is it important?
a. Glucuronic acid is a sugar acid monosaccharide derivative
b. We use it for detoxification and glycosaminoglycan formation
c. Whe use UDP-glucose to synthesize UDP-glucuronic acid
What does the pentose phosphate pathway form?
1. Ribose
2. NADPH
3. ATP
Regulatin of pentose phosphate pathway
Do it!
i. Substrate availability= NADP+ low
ii. Feedback by NADPH
iii. Increased synthesis of enzyme induced by insulin
What is rate limiting enzyme of pentose pathway?
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
8. Why does a gene defect in the gene that codes for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase cause hemolytic anemia?
a. Increased oxidative stress due to lack of NADPH to reduce glutathione
9. How many people have a gene defect in Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase
a. Very common because of protection from malaria.
10. What precipitates a hemolytic episode in patients with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and how is this disease treated
a. Drug induced, infection induced, Favism (from fava beans)
b. Supportive treatment for acute cases, remove oxidants, prevent by avoiding oxidants