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59 Cards in this Set

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The following molecule
is best described as a ______. CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2
hydrocarbon, containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms
-COOH is an example of _______.
carboxyl group
Given the reaction:
galactose + glucose → lactose + water, galactose is a ______.
monomer
Why is plant matter a good source of fiber?
cellulose remains undigested all the way thru the digestive tract
The function of a protein is dependent on its ______.
shape
The linear sequence of monomers in a polypeptide chain is referred to as its ______ structure.
primary
Proteins are polymers constructed from ______ monomers.
amino acid
What are saturated fats saturated with?
hydrogen
Nucleic acids are polymers of ______ monomers.
nucleotide
If one strand of a DNA double helix has the sequence AGTACTG, what will be the sequence of the other strand?
TCATGAC
What nitrogenous base replaces thymine in RNA?
uracil
A ______ is an example of a unicellular organism.
bacteria (Monera), some protists
What theory states that all living things are composed of cells?
cell theory
The two basic types of cells are ______ and ______.
prokaryotic and eukarotic
Prokaryotic cells lack a ________.
nucleus
What organelle allows material to enter and exit the cell?
cell membrane
Which organelle is considered as the powerhouse of the cell and converts your food into energy?
mitochondria
Organelles are suspended within the gelatin-like material called ______.
cytosol
Proteins synthesis occurs
in which organelle?
ribosome
In which organelle are sunlight, water, and CO2 converted into sugar, O2, and water vapor?
chloroplast
What name is given to the region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane?
cytoplasm
Which organelle is used for storage in the cell?
vacuole
What name is given to the organelle that manufactures the components of ribosomes?
nucleolus
Lysosomes are known for what function?
digestion of large molecules
A protist that contains contractile vacuoles probably lives in what type of environment?
fresh water
What is the term for “the capacity to do work?”
energy
Running is an example of ________ energy.
kinetic
A skateboarder at the top of a ramp is an example of _______ energy.
potential
The principle that energy cannot be created or destroyed in known as ______.
Conservation of Energy
What is the term for a measure of disorder?
entropy
Humans and other organisms that have mitochondria, convert approximately _____% of the energy stored in food to energy stored in ATP.
40
Five kilocalories are equivalent to ______ calories.
5,000
What compound directly provides energy for cellular work?
ATP
Energy is transferred from ATP to other molecules by transferring a(n) ______.
phosphate
An enzyme's function is dependent on its ______.
shape
Diffusion is an example of ______.
passive transport
An organism that has the same solute concentration
as the environment it is
in would be a(an) __________ solution.
isotonic
______ is to eating as ______ is to drinking.
Phagocytosis pinocytosis
Is it passive or active transport when oxygen crosses the plasma membrane?
passive
Which process can move a solute against its concentration gradient?
active transport
The ultimate source of the energy in food is ______.
sunlight
Aerobic means with _______.
oxygen
What is the formula for aerobic cellular respiration?
6O2 + C6H12O6-> 6H2O + 6CO2
All chemical processes that occur within cells is called ______________.
metabolism
Glycolysis occurs in the _______ of the cell.
cytosol/cytoplasm
In which organelle does the Kreb’s Cycle take place?
mitochondria
The complete anaerobic respiration of one glucose molecule produces a net gain of ____ ATP molecules.
2
The second stage of aerobic respiration is ______.
the Kreb's Cycle
What does cutting down trees do to the CO2 levels in the atmosphere?
increases them
Name an autotroph.
any plant or photosynthetic protist
What plant structure is responsible for gas exchange?
stomata
Plant cells that contain the organelle responsible for photosynthesis are concentrated in cells of the ______.
mesopyhll
Through what structure do plants receive most of their water?
roots
What name is given to the membranous sacs found within a chloroplast?
thylakoids
The wavelength of white light appears LEAST useful to photosynthesis?
green
What is responsible for the yellow-orange coloration of leaves in the fall?
carotenoids
What name is given to a discrete packet of light?
photon
The shorter the wavelength of visible light, the ______ the energy.
greater
Which type of plant keeps their stomata closed most of the time?
C4