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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Who were the kings for the 7th century prophetic books (Nahum, Zephaniah, Habakukk)?
• Manasseh (son of Hezekiah) Bad (687-642) Few/no prophetic oracles surviving his reign.
• Amon – Bad (642-640)
• Josiah – Good (640-609)
• Jehoahaz – Bad (609 - 3 months)
• Johoiakim – Bad (609-598)
• Johoiachin – Bad (598 during the Babylonian siege – when exiled to Babylon)
What are the dates for the 7th century prophetic books (Nahum, Zephaniah, Habakukk)?
• Nahum’s message between (663 – 612) After capture of NoAmon (663) before fall of Ninevah (612)
• Zephaniah’s message – (642 – 628)
• Habakkuk’s message – (640-630) per Bullock & Vasholz
What were the main historical events during the 7th century prophetic books (Nahum, Zephaniah, Habakukk)?
669-627 Asshurbanipal (Assyria) reigns
638-628 - downfall of Assyria begins and then complete, Judah experiences increasing freedom during this time
626-605 Nabopolassar (Babel) reigns
622 - height of Josiah's reforms
612 - fall of Nineveh
610-595 Necho (Egypt) reigns
609 - Josiah dying at Meggido cuts religious reform in Judah short
605 Necho fights Babylonians at Carchemish and is soundly defeated
605-562 Nebuchadrezzar reigns in Babylon
605 First set of captives from Judah to Babel (Daniel): 2 Kg 24.1?
597 Second set of captives from Judah to Babel (Ezekiel): 2 Kg 24.10-16
587 Third (and last) set of captives from Judah to Babel: 2 Kg 25
When were the 3 Babylonian exiles?
Three Babylonian exiles (605, 597, 587)
• 605 – Daniel, his friends, and the royal court taken captive to Babylon.
• 597 – Ezekiel, of the priestly line, exiled to Babylon began his prophetic ministry (593-571).
• 587 – Jerusalem destroyed and the final group taken away to Babylon.
What is the outline of Nahum?
Ch. 1 The Lord’s Vengence
Ch. 2-3 Description of Nineveh’s Fall
What is the main message of Nahum?
Main Message
One main idea: (from class lecture): The Lord’s vengeance against his enemies (i.e. those who persecute and oppress God’s people), in the context of the Lord’s commitment to protecting the corporate entity of his people (in contrast to their adversaries).

Message and Purpose – (Study Guide and class lecture notes)
• Comfort to Judah - They are God’s chosen people, the object of his special favor, and the vehicle for God’s mission. Judah will see the day of relief of their oppression, and have a fresh opportunity to embrace their mission, when the Assyrian tyranny comes to an end. This calls them to renew hope and persevering faithfulness. Nah 1:15 – a reference to the restoration from Exile in the terms of Isaiah 52 (a messenger “who brings good news, who publishes peace”)

• The Nature of God – He is sovereign in judgment and salvation (1:7-8) as an expression of his essential being. Also, Ex 34:6-7 is the background to Nah 1:1-3 (slow to anger, and will not clear the guilty, i.e. those opposed to His mission/His adversaries)
What is the outline of Zephaniah?
Ch 1 The day of the Lord’s Judgment
2:1-7 Summary of the Prophet’s Message
2:8-15 The Lord will Destroy his Enemies
Ch 3 The Lord will Judge his enemies in Jerusalem and bless those who obey him
What is the main message of Zephaniah?
The Day of the Lord means that judgement is the means by which the remnant of Israel will receive restoration, receive salvation, and will be prepared to bring that salvation to the Gentiles.
What is the outline of Habukkuk?
1:1 Superscription
1:2-4 First complaint: the wicked Assyrian oppressors-How long under the Assyrians?
1:5-11 First answer: God will punish the Assyrians by the Babylonians
1:12-2:1 Second complaint: How is that a solution--How is this a solution, since it means subjugation to Babylonians?
2:2-20 God’s answer: justice will be vindicated in the destruction of oppressors
ch 3 Habakkuk’s response - a prayer of trust and expectation
What is the main message of Habukkuk?
Short: Transition prophet focusing on the shift from Neo-Assyrian to the Neo-Babylonian period. Habbukuk is an inspired inquest, whose message is the questions and answers. The answers express God's purpose and his demands for his covenant, namely that the story is going somewhere and the people should respond in faith that it is going somewhere.

Long: In this vision (1:1, “saw”; 2:2 “ vision”) of a dialogue between the prophet and the LORD, he highlights and models the significance of faithfulness and trust in God for the people of Judah in the midst of the challenge of foreign invasion and oppression (first by the Assyrians, and later the Babylonians who will be God’s instrument of deliverance from the Assyrians); the story is not over and God will restore his people, and the glory and knowledge of the LORD will fill the whole world (Hab 2:14). Reassurance: the oppressors will themselves be overthrown in time, so that the mission of God’s people to bless the nations may go forward and be fulfilled.

Hab 2:4 - “The righteous will live by his faith”; Faith = loyalty and faithfulness to the Lord, and confidence that as a member of God’s people they are participants in a story that is going somewhere, and that God will vindicate his purposes for his people in a just time (Hab 3:16-19- patient persevering faith of quality/substance, rather than mere assent). Habakkuk’s desire for salvation (3) = deliverance from all that keeps them from being true Israel, and fostering the conditions for their calling/mission to flourish.

Summary Message – God will in fact relieve the oppression in time, and see to it that Judah will be enabled to fulfill its purpose, so that the members should patiently wait on God and keep the faith.
Who were the kings for the late 7th century prophetic books (Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Obadaiah?)
Josiah 640-609 good
Jehoahaz 609 bad
Jehoyakim 609-597 bad
Jehoyachin 597 bad
Zedekiah 597-587 bad
What was the historical context for late 7th century prophetic books (Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Obadaiah?)
669-627 Asshurbanipal (Assyria) reigns
638-628 - downfall of Assyria begins and then complete, Judah experiences increasing freedom during this time
626-605 Nabopolassar (Babel) reigns
622 - height of Josiah's reforms
612 - fall of Nineveh
610-595 Necho (Egypt) reigns
609 - Josiah dying at Meggido cuts religious reform in Judah short
605 Necho fights Babylonians at Carchemish and is soundly defeated
605-562 Nebuchadrezzar reigns in Babylon
605 First set of captives from Judah to Babel (Daniel): 2 Kg 24.1?
597 Second set of captives from Judah to Babel (Ezekiel): 2 Kg 24.10-16
587 Third (and last) set of captives from Judah to Babel: 2 Kg 25

Jeremiah ministry: 627-580
Internal conditions: Judah idolatrous, syncretistic; political rulers faithless; disregarding warnings; exile imminent
External conditions: Assyria (Asshurbanipal) weakened and eventually fallen; Babylon (Nabopolassar) ascendant;

Daniel ministry: 604-535
Internal conditions: tail end of Josiah’s reign, Judah in first wave of exile
External conditions: Babylon (Nebuchadrezzar) firmly in power; taking Judah captive

Ezekiel ministry: 592-565
Internal conditions: Judah in exile; downfall of Jerusalem
External conditions: Babylon (Nebuchadrezzar) firmly in power
What is the outline of Jeremiah?
Congratulations, you don't need to waste memory space on this just yet.
What is the main message of Jeremiah?
Main Message
Collins says see Bullock, 208-211 as well class notes

1) The sin of Judah: This consisted basically in forsaking the Lord and devising a religious system that epitomized disobedience. God did not want mere ritual religion, but for Judah to live out their knowledge of God by obeying the ethical demands of the covenant. (This is outlined in ch. 2)

2) Judgment: This was coming through Babylon if the people did not repent. With that said, God was ready to relent if they did repent (think carefully about conditional and unconditional prophecy here). (2:36-37)

3) New Covenant: Because God would work directly on the hearts of his people, religion of ritual without morality would cease.

4) The Future of Judah: This includes return from exile—exile was not the end of the story. Moreover, he saw beyond that to where the story was headed, the Messianic age during which both Israel and the nations would be blessed by as new Davidic ruler.
What is the outline of Ezekiel?
And another gift, go on to the next question!
What is the main message of Ezekiel?
Short: 20:39-44 and 36:22-32 spell out the nature of God’s grace (in spite of repeated provocations), the new birth and its effects (no longer will God’s people presume on his forbearance), and the goal of God in saving people for himself. He will see the story through to its conclusion; do the people of Judah want to have a part in that?

Collins says, “The specifics of his call (2:1-3:15) anticipate his main themes:

1) The hardened and rebellious people of Judah (2:3-4),
2) The necessity of communicating exactly what God says (2:7-3:3 [cf. Rev 10:9-10]),
3) The influence of the Spirit (3:12-14…)
4) The effect on Ezekiel himself and his communication with the Exiles (3:14-15)” (108)
5) Collins also says, “Chs. 20 and 36 spell out:
a. The nature of God’s grace (in spite of repeated provocations),
b. The new birth and its effects (no longer will God’s people presume on his forbearance),
c. The goal of God in saving people for himself: 20-39-44; 36:22-32. He will see the story through to its conclusion; do the people of Judah want to have a part in that” (113).
What is the outline of Daniel?
Ch. 1 Intro / Daniel’s Commitment
Ch. 2 Vision of the Four Kingdoms
Ch. 3 The acts of the martyrs
Ch. 4-5 Judgment on the Kings
Ch. 6 The acts of the martyrs`
Ch. 7 Vision of the Four Kingdoms`
Ch. 8 Vision of the Ram and Goat
Ch. 9 The Seventy Years
Ch 10-12 The Final Vision
What is the main message of Daniel?
• suits the needs of "thoughtful Jews in Exile" (supporting the traditional date)

• a historical and prophetic survey of the whole period of Gentile imperial rule from Nebuchadnezzar's first assault of Jerusalem until the abolition of all Gentile imperial power and setting up of Messianic kingdom

• intended to assure Jews in exile that story is still going somewhere, that God is still sovereign over all and remembers his covenant with his people

– this is revealed by physical protection of daniel in lion's den, fiery furnace
– also revealed by Daniel's ability to interpret dreams that babylon is mystified by
– also revealed by meaning of dream, esp in ch 2 (four empires destroyed by messianic kingdom)
– revealed by repentance of Nebuchadnezzar/Darius (nations!)
What is the outline of Obadiah?
vv. 1-7 The Guilt of Edom
vv. 8-18 The Punishment of Edom
vv. 19-21 Epilogue: The people of God reoccupy their own land
What is the main message of Obadiah?
• Edom is toast!!!
The main message is God's continuing zeal for his people. Judgement upon Judah through Edom is faithfulness, so too will be God's judgement upon Edom. Edom will be judged by God because of their participation in plunder of Jerusalem and general opposition of God's people (also represents Gentiles in general). Also shows God's zeal for Edom (and all nations, which Edom represents), for they will be "judged" (v21) meaning they will be ruled as they come into the people of God.
Who are the 6th to 5th century prophets?
• Haggai – message (520)
• Zechariah – (520-518)
• Malachi – 460
• Joel – circa 400
What are the main events and foreign rulers in the 6th/5th century?
• (539) Fall of Babylon to Persians
• (539 – 530) Cyrus’ Reign [Persian King]
• (538) Cyrus’ decree to return of Zerubbabel & Sheshbazzar etc to Jerusalem
• (537) Rebuilding of the Temple Begins
• (522-486) Darius I [Persian King] He enabled the returned Jews to rebuild the temple
• (520-516) Building of the temple resumed and completed under Haggai & Zechariah
• (486-464) Xerxes I [Persian King] (Ahasuerus) [Esther]
• (464-423) Artaxerxes I
• (460 circa) Malachi’s message
• (458) Ezra goes to Jerusalem (sent by Artaxerxes I). He was to bring about the observance of Jewish Law, with important covenant renewal in 445.
• (445-433) Nehemiah, under his supervision the Jews rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem.
What is the outline of Haggai?
Ch 1 Message I: A popular saying and Haggai’s response
2:1-9 Message II: The glory of the new temple and the glory of the old
2:10-19 Message III: Priestly lessons from the Law
2:20-23 Message IV: Hope for revival of the Davidic dynasty
What is the main message of Haggai?
The main message “is quite simple – the people of Judah should get back to work and finish rebuilding the temple.” The book reminds us that God's will and work must always take priority.”
What is the outline of Zechariah?
1:1-6 Introduction: the lesson of history
1:7-ch 6 Visions portraying God’s zeal for rebuilding Zion
ch 7-8 Prophetic exhortation based on history
ch 9-14 Elaboration of Messanic Theme
What is the main message of Zechariah?
God will renew his covenant with the restored people, and be faithful to them. The promise to David (2 Sam 7) still stands – the Messiah will come. Therefore the people should take courage and have faith that God is in fact with them (not only did they need to rebuild the temple [Haggai’s theme], they also needed to be sure that God was in fact reconstituting them as his covenant people). God, who controls history, will vindicate himself, his Messiah, and his people. Even when evil has done its worst, the Lord remains king and will be seen to be king by all the nations.”
What is the outline of Malachi?
1:1 Superscription
1:2-4:3 Six Disputations
4:4-6 Appendix: Moses the law-giver & Elijah the exemplar of prophecy
What is the main message of Malachi?
Malachi addresses the nominalism of the people of God after the revival of Haggai and Zechariah had worn off. They are not the kind of people that God delights in and makes to be a light to the rest of the world (=Day of the LORD).
What is the outline of Joel?
1:1 Superscription
1:2-2:17 A Lament
2:18-3:21 The Lord’s response to the lament and the future age
What is the main message of Joel?
Yahweh’s judgment, both in its present and apocalyptic forms, is transformed into salvation when his people accept his offer of grace and return to him with torn hearts and not just torn clothing (2:13). God not only meets his people’s material needs (2:21-27) but gives his very self as well (3:1-5). He opens to all the security of Zion.
Topic: Messiah in major prophets
in Jer & Ezek:

* contrasted with faithless shepherds & will do what they didn't do J 23:5; 33:15
* this shepherd is called righteous branch (J 23:5; 33:15); my servant David (E 34:23) prince among them (E 34:24)
* but God is also called the shepherd and ascribed the same tasks (E 34:15-16; 30-31)
* not sure about how these connect exactly, but ? concurrently? God promises to fulfil his promise to ISR (J 33:14); he will lead them on a second exodus (J 23:7-8); this will be a time when David never lacks a king on the throne and levites never lack a man to make offerings a sacrifices (J 33:17-18)

In Daniel

* context - exile, Davidic king removed --> promises in question (2 Sam 7)
* in chs. 2, 7 we see the triumph and setting up of the universal messianic kingdom over the 4 gentile empires
Topic: The new covenant
Syllabus pgs. 93 (notes), 94-106 (article), 114-117 (sermon), 91 (notes on Jer. 31).

Collins’ basic approach is to exegete the OT passages dealing with the old covenant, and then see how these passages are used in the NT. He finds that:

1. The sole OT reference to “old covenant” is Jeremiah 31:27-40. The structure is three paragraphs (A) Israel and Judah will be restored after exile (vs. 27-30), (B) God promises the people a “new covenant” (vs. 31-37), (C) Jerusalem will be rebuilt (again restoration from exile) (38-40). The sections are marked off by the repetition of the phrase “Behold, the days are coming, declares the LORD” (27, 31, 38). The first and third paragraphs sandwich the second and provide the context for its interpretation: the return from exile for the Judeans. This context is confirmed by the parallel text of 32:36-44.

The second paragraph (31-37, new covenant) deals not with redemptive-historical changes, but with a problem the people had: they lacked inward covenant reality and had no genuine circumcision of the heart. The new covenant is what fixes this. The days when this remedy begins, “days…coming” (27, 38), are the days after the exile during the restoration. Thus, the “new covenant” is not a new redemptive-historical era. Rather, “new covenant” means “new situation in which the people embrace the covenant from the heart” that begins after the return from exile.

2. Jeremiah 31 is only one of many “new covenant” texts in the OT which use similar language to speak of the same inward reality of a real relationship with God such as “new heart” (Ezek. 36), “writing the law on the heart,” and “circumcision of the heart” (See list of new covenant passages in Syllabus p. 91 bottom). These passages show that there is nothing new to OT religion in the “new covenant.” The same ideas in the “new covenant” passages describe genuine relationship with God elsewhere in the OT. See study guide p. 91, under v. 33, for OT passages that show the new covenant is really nothing new.

3. When we get to the NT, the key passages that deal with the “new covenant” (Heb. 8, 2 Cor. 3, Gal 4) describe it in terms of an inward reality of a relationship with God. The “old covenant” refers to the people’s historic response of rejecting God and apostasy, not an older redemptive-historical era that is somehow defective. The “new covenant” refers to covenant reality, faith, genuine relationship with God. For dealing with Jesus’ words on the new covenant in Lk. 22 and 1 Cor. 11, see Collins Syllabus, pgs.103-104.

4. One of the key exegetical decisions that enables Collins to define “new covenant” in this way is to exclude Is. 42:6 and 49:8 from his consideration of “new covenant” texts. These texts do seem to speak of an objective, redemptive-historical covenant. (See Syllabus p. 102).
Topic: Shepherds
From Jeremiah (2.8; 3.15; 10.21; and 23.1-4) and Ezekiel 34 and 37.24-28.
“Shepherds” in these passages is code for “leaders, most often priests (sometimes prophets).

The indictment against the shepherds in Jeremiah
• 2.8 priests failing to seek the LORD; supposed to know God and know his Law so that they could teach others, but they knew neither; the prophets prophesied by Baal.
• 3.15 God promises future shepherds after his own heart who will feed the people on knowledge and understanding.
• 10.21 the shepherds are stupid. They haven’t sought the LORD and their flocks are scattered.
• 23.1-4 woe to the shepherds. They’re destroying and scattering the sheep. God will therefore punish them. God promises future shepherds who will tend his sheep. (in verse 5ff he promises the righteous Branch of David as the one who will rule his people justly)

The indictment against the shepherds in Ezekiel 34 and 37.24-28
• 34.1-10 the shepherds feeding themselves, not the sheep. Thus, the sheep are scattered and have fallen prey to wild beasts (other nations [?]).
• 34.11-15 God himself is going after the sheep to gather them.
• 34.16-19 The fat sheep (shepherds) are exploiting the weak sheep. God will bring judgment.
• 34.20-24 God will set David as the shepherd over his sheep.
• 34.25-29 God will ensure that his sheep are safe from wild beasts (other nations [?]).
• 34.30-31 God is the shepherd of his people
• 37.24-28 David will be the shepherd over the people.

The bottom line
• The shepherds were neglecting their responsibility to know God and his Law and to instruct the people in both. Instead, they were lording it over the people, exploiting them, and scattering them in the process. This is not to be the nature of power and authority. Power and authority are given by God so that those in power and authority can serve others and (in this case) foster covenant faithfulness among God’s people. Power and authority are not for personal gain!

• God would send his people faithful shepherds. But he would also send them the chief shepherd David (Messiah); and yet God, too, would be the shepherd who ensure a prosperous future for the people in their land. This would have created some tension as to the exact ontological identity of the Shepherd: both a Davidite and God, but how?
Topic: Symbolic Actions in Jeremiah
Jer 1:9-10 “Then the LORD put out his hand and touched my mouth…”

This symbolic action is the call of Jeremiah, given to establish him as a spokesman for God (Deut 18). It tells us that we must listen…

Jer 1: 11-12 “…I see an almond (dqEßv') branch…You have seen well, for I am watching (dqEïvo) over my word to perform it…”

The wordplays in ch.1 are common, and the literary similarity is meant to govern how the vision is meant to be understood. The vision of an almond tree leads the reader/hearer to understand it by showing us the Lord’s oversight in the judgments. Consider also “h['êr"h'” (v14) and “~t'_['r"” (v16). The first use describes a “disaster” while the second use describes “their evil”. The wordplay shapes how the vision is to be understood, and to correlate the “disaster” to their “evil”.

Jer 2:13 “…they have forsaken me, the fountain of living waters, and hewed out cisterns for themselves, broken cisterns that can hold no water.”

The action of “hewing out cisterns” is symbolic in describing Judah’s forsaking the LORD. How so? In that culture there are three ways in which one gets waters:

1) They get “living water,” that is, water that runs in a stream. This is the best way, as the water is plentiful, cool, oxygenated and tasty.
2) They get water from a well, which is ground water that seeps into in well. This is not as good as the first option, but it is cool water at the least.
3) They retrieve water from cisterns that put into the ground to collect rain water. Often this water is hot and polluted with bugs and dirt--least desirable.

So for God to describe their actions in terms of using broken cisterns, means that they have forsaken God (Living Water) for an empty and unsatisfying fake.

Bullock notes, “…the spiritual condition of Judah was that of one who had turned away from a flowing stream of water only to hew out cisterns with holes in them, two illogical actions. Forsaking the water she desperately needed to prepare a useless cistern for water she had already forsaken—what an absurdity! Yet that describes the dilemma the nation had fallen into.” (p.209)
It then should come as no surprise then, that Jesus picks up Jeremiah’s use of “living water” as a metaphor for God and uses it in Jn 4:10 and Jn 7:38. Jesus is the satisfying “living water”.

Jer 4:4 (also 9:25-26) Circumcision of the heart

This is symbolic language of owning the covenant for yourself, that is, embracing the inner reality of covenant relationship. (cf. Deut 10:16; 30:6)

Jer 7:15 “As for you, do not pray for this people (Covenant members)…for I will not hear you.”

This symbolic action is meant to cause us pause… it colors the passage in grave solemnity. (cf. 1 Jn 5:16) For the record, just because it is symbolic, does not mean that it didn’t happen. It simply means that the recording of this command is meant to color our understanding of the passage.

“Acted Sermons”

Bullock, p.90… An “acted sign.. [or] prophetic symbolism, as it is called, had been known since the days of Hosea and Isaiah, but Jeremiah gave it popularity, and Ezekiel mastered the art as no other prophet had… Some of these were performed or observed in private and some publicly, always accompanied by interpretation.”
• Linen waistcloth (ch.13)
• The potter’s house (ch.18)
• The broken jar (ch.19)
• The bonds and yokes he wore (ch.27-28)
• The purchase of his kinsman’s field in Anathoth (ch.32)

The “confessions”

Bullock, p.197… “Although the ‘confessions’ are not grouped together in one collection, they do constitute a homogenous classification by virtue of their emotional tone and subject matter…The deeply emotional passage found in 8:18-9:3 contains a mixture of divine and prophetic lament. Basically these confessions or prayers conform to the emotional disposition of Jeremiah as we know it outside the confessions.”
Topic: Symbolic Actions in Ezekiel
The episode of the Ezekiel bread is the back end of the object lesson that depicted the siege of Jerusalem (vv1-17).

Here, he layed on his left side for 390 days representing the years which the people had been weighed down by sin. Next the prophet was to turn on his right side for 40 days to symbolically bear the sin of the house of Judah... while laying on his side, Eze was to face his model of the siege of Jerusalem, to lay bare his arm, and to prophesy against the city.. The bared arm symbolized the Lords intention to come as a warrior and to judge the city.

... During that 390 day period he was to make bread according to a divinely prescribed recipe. He was to eat eight ounces of this bread and drink two-thirds of a quart of water each day at a specified time. This meager diet pictured the siege conditions which Jerusalme would endure, when food and water would be scarce. The Lord instructed Ezekiel to bake the bread over a fire fueled by human excrement. Since this would make one ritually unclean, this object lesson symbolized how the people would be forced to eat ritually defiled food in exile..
Jeremiah and Ezekiel Overlap
The primary aspects of overlap between Ezekiel and Jeremiah are: shared calling and priestly background, shepherd motif, symbolic actions (or acted prophecy), the harlotry motif, and the New Covenant. First, both Jeremiah and Ezekiel are priestly prophets called to preach immanent judgment of exile and promised restoration of the remnant. J 1:1; E 1:3. Both comment upon liturgical behavior by the priests of the people and the people themselves. J 7; E 10-11 (in the sanctuary where the people are gathered for worship, God makes himself specially present).

Second, one of Jeremiah’s and Ezekiel’s shared themes is that of the shepherds’ (i.e., the priests’) failure to feed the sheep. Instead the shepherds exploit the sheep, giving them over to be eaten, rather than serving the people by leading them into practice of faithfulness and holiness in worship, relationships, and society. J 23:1-4; E 34.

Third, the Lord calls both Jeremiah and Ezekiel to take actions symbolic of their prophecies. Examples include the soiling of the linen loincloth (J 13), the trip to the potter’s house and the breaking of the pot (J 18, 19), the purchase of the field during the siege as a symbol of the restored future in the land (J 32). Similarly, the Lord requires Ezekiel to act out his signs in the clay tablet under siege, lying on his side bearing the punishment for the sins of Israel, bread cooked over excrement, and the burned, cut, and blown hair depicting the destruction of Jerusalem. E 4-5.

Fourth, each book uses a harlotry or whoredom motif to describe Judah’s prostitution to other Gods (J 2:20; 3:1, 6, 8; 5:7; E 16:15f, 28, 31, 35, 41; 23:5, 19, 44.) This theme also appears prominently in other prophets such as Hosea.

Fifth, both Jeremiah and Ezekiel contain new covenant passages and use similar terms to speak of the new covenant, though only Jeremiah uses that explicit term to describe the circumstances to which both refer. Both Jeremiah and Ezekiel refer in context to God’s punishment and restoration of Judah, accompanied by spiritual renewal among the people.” Study Guide 91-92. There are examples there, most notably, Jeremiah 31:31-34 and Ezekiel 11:19-20 (really 14-21); 36:26-28. Note also parallels there in the details of covenant terminology (“covenant of eternity” J 32.40, E 16:60b).
Jeremiah and Ezekiel Different emphases
We did little formal contrasting of these two books, but they do have some different emphases, which include: geographic location and audience, mode of expression (apocalyptic intensity), ferocity of opposition, and emphasized themes (e.g. Ezekiel and glory of the Lord). Jeremiah was given the astonishingly difficult task of ministering to those in Jerusalem while the exilic deportations and siege were occurring and proclaiming loudly the message that Judah and Jerusalem would be defeated. On the other hand, Ezekiel was deported in the second deportation in 597 B.C. and ministered to the exilic community (though the Lord lifted him up and allowed him to see what was occurring in Jerusalem). Though the ministry of each was extraordinarily difficult, the comparatively greater and consistent risk of Jeremiah’s ministry is signaled in Jeremiah’s single state and Ezekiel’s married state.

Ezekiel too has a heightened intensity with the frequent use of simile and fantastic visions attempting to express the otherwise ineffable. In this connection he places emphasis on the “glory of the Lord,” where Jeremiah does not. Ezek. 1:28; 3:12, 23; 10:4, 18; 11:23; 43:4f; 44:4. The exact phrase does not appear in Jeremiah. In Chapters 38-39 this heightened intensity manifests itself in the proto-apocalyptic Gog and Magog and in the heightened depiction of the new and seemingly eschatological Temple (see Rev. 22) at the end of the book.