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65 Cards in this Set

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How is good nutrition in kids evaluated?
Growth chart.
What is the expected growth for a newborn?
Newborn should double body weight by 6 mos. and triple birth weight by a year.
From childhood to an adult body, how much should an adolescents body weight change?
It should double.
After the second year of life, how much weight should children be gaining?
1 lb every 3 mos.
What is the avg. weight at birth?
7 lbs.
How much of brain growth is achieved in first 3 years of life?
2/3, that's why kids look like a melon
What is the avg weight and height of a 4 yr old?
40 lbs and 40 inches.
What is the avg weight and height of a 7 yr old?
49 lbs and 49 inches.
What is the avg height gain of a child per year until puberty?
5-6 cm/year
During puberty growth spurt, how much height does an adolescent gain? What happens to weight?
10-12 cm/year, weight doubles
Where do calories come from, prior to age 2?
50% of all calories should come from fat!
Prior to age 2, why do kids need 50% of all their calories coming from fat?
B/c of the myelinization going on in the young nervous system. Myelin need fat to develop.
After 2 years of age, what guidelines should parents follow for calories? What are those guidelines?
Adult guidelines for calories: 30% fat, 30% protein, 40% carbs
1.Is "baby-megaly" an indication of obesity in later life?
2.At what age is weight more indication of obesity in later life?
2.2 years
What fat soluble vitamins are important early on?
During what age of the baby does breast mile change consistency?
4-6 mos.
During what age are supplements to formula and solid food added to a baby's diet?
4-6 mos.
What happens if solid food is added to a baby's diet before 4 months or after 6 months?
There is increased likelihood of developing allergies.
What are 2 important minerals during infant and adolescent years?
Ca and Iron.
Babies with Iron deficiency may have what problem?
Devleopmental Delay.
How many calories are needed for growth in a newborn?
1.Do babies with BPD need more or less caloreis?
2.What about babies with Down syndrome?
1.What happens to newborn weight during the first 2 weeks of life? (especially those breast fed)
2.What should happen to birth weight after the first 2 weeks?
1.Babies loose 10% of their birth weight.
2.Weight should return back to original birth weight.
After the first 2 weeks, how much weight should a baby be gaining?
1 oz per day
At one month, what does a babies intake average?
4 oz intake every 4 hours
After what age does adult kcal intake apply?
12 years
What is a quick and dirty formula to determine kcal intake?
1000 + 100(years in age)
How much Ca is important for adolescent females?
1500 mg/day
How much Ca is important for adult women?
1000 mg/day
After age 2, how much fat intake should a child have?
Same as adult guidelines: 10% of each type of the three fats, totaling 30% of caloric intake
Under age 2, how much of the diet should be made up of fat? And what kind of fat
50% of diet made up of ANY fat
For parents that complain their children don't eat, how much food should they be given their child?
Size of child's fist is how big their stomach is. So think about how much food fits in that size.
With CF, what does one have to worry about?
Fat soluble vitamins being lost in stool.
With CP, what does one have to watch out for?
Constipating foods (bananas, peanut butter, cheese)
Children who drink goat's milk instead of cow's milk end up with what?
Megaloblastic anemia, b/c they are short on folate.
With Hirchsprungs disease, what does one have to watch out for?
Constipating foods.
1.For CHD, what does one have to be careful with?
2.For CHD, what is the biggest issue to worry about?
1.Be careful with how you give calories, avoid giving too much fluid.
2.Not having enough calories to grow.
1.For extreme premature babies, what does one have to be careful about?
2.What does formula increase the risk of? And what is protective against this risk?
1.Be careful about solute
2.Necrotizing intercolitis, breast feeding is protective
What are the physicial characteristics of kids with Prader Willi?
Almond shaped eyes, small hands, feet, genitalia
What are children with Prader Willi in danger of?
Obesity, Type II Diabetes
Put locks on fridges so that kids don't go after food
In children with Down Syndrome, what must be careful with?
Overfeeding; can be hypothermic with low metabolic rates
1.At what age should one start screening for hyperlipidemia?
2.What is a common cause of hyperlipidemia at a young age?
1.Age 5
2.apoprotein E receptor issue
What foods should not be given to children with hyperlipidemia?
Avocado, guacamole, coconut, nut oils, etc.
What is Rickets caused by?
Vitamin D deficiency
In the US, what type of Rickets exists?
Vitamin D Resistant Rickets: kidneys are losing important elements for bone growth.
Who is at biggest risk for Vit D Deficient rickets?
African Americans in northern climates that are solely breast fed.
Why are kids iron deficient?
Milk anemia-->xs milk intake greater than 24 oz milk/day-->gut microsensitivity-->lose a little bld in stomach which goes out into stool
In whom is Ca deficiency most important?
Iron deficiency results in what type of bld disorder?
Microcytic hypochromic anemia: small, pale cells with low iron
What is the pneumonic for illnesses that result in microcytic anemia?
TAILS (Thalassemia, Anemia of chronic disease, Iron deficiency, Lead, Sideroblastic Anemia)
What is the Mentzer index?
Measure of MCV/RBC
12 or greater on the Mentzer index results in what?
Fe deficiency.
11 or less on the Mentzer index results in what?
What is the main differential diagnosis for Fe deficiency?
Thalassemia, is often mistreated with Fe supplements after a misdiagnosis of Fe deficiency.
How is an Fe deficiency treated?
Fe supplements over 3 mos.
A deficiency in vit. K results in what?
Hemorrhagic disease of newborn.
Newborn delivered at home presents to ER after mom denotes vomiting up blood and bloody stool at one week of life--what is your diagnosis?
Hemorrhagic disease of newborn with a deficiency in Vit. K--baby born at home, didn't get early Vitamin K.
What does thiamine deficiency result in?
Mucusitis and glossitis.
What is thiamine deficiency caused by?
6 mo. old present to clinic with mother who is a known alcoholic and is strictly breastfeeding. What do you think the baby will be deficient in, and what signs/symptoms will you be looking for?
Thiamine deficiency, similar to alcoholic symptoms in the ER. A lot of mucusitis and glossitis. Imp. to ask if moms are taking prenatal vitamins!
If a baby is only fed goat's milk, what does this cause? why?
Megaloblastic Anemia b/c of folate deficiency.
What is special about the PMN's in megaloblastic anemia?
They are hypersegmented!
What are the physical characteristics of scurvy?
gingivitis, dermatitis, corkscrew curly hairs on forearm
Back in the day, sailors,when traveling abroad, brought this with them on ships to avoid the following symptoms. What is the deficiency and diagnosis?
Limes to prevent scurvy.
What are the characteristics of Rickets in a baby?
1.Anterior fontanelles slow to close
2.Bony necklace
3.Rochetic Rosary
4.Curve bones
5.Big wrists due to loss of Calcium
6.Harrison's groove