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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The hyoid bone is part of the axial or appendicular skeleteon
Name and describe the 3 types of cartilage
• Elastic:
- contains some elastin in its intercellular substance
- found in areas, such as the ear, where some flexibilty is important

• Hyaline:
- most abundant type of cartilage
- forms much of the cartilage of the fetal skeleteon
- in adults, forms costal cartilage and cartilage of the respiratory tract, articular cartilages, and epiphyseal plates

• Fibrocartilage:
- found in intervertebral discs, where tendons are connected to bone, and in the symphysis pubis
What are the 2 main types of intercellular fibers found in skeletal tissue?
• collagenous
• elastic
What are 4 types of bone cells that participate in the formation and maintence of bone?
• osteogenic cells
• osteoblasts
• osteocytes
• osteclasts
What are the 2 stages of bone formation?
• ossification
• calcification
What enzyme do osteoblasts secrete?
• alkaline phosphatase
• bone injury or fracture will show an elevated alk phos
What are the 2 types of joints?
• synarthrosis: immovable joints
• diarthroses: freely movable joints
What are the 3 general classes of joints?
• fibrous
• cartilagenous
• synovial
What are the different classifications of synovial joints?
• ball and socket
• condyloid
• hinge
• pivot
• plane
• saddle
Name and describe the different classifications of contusions
• Mild: retains near normal and associated joint range of motion, localized tenderness, and no gait alteration

• Moderate: swollen, tender muscle mass; retention of 75% of the affect joint ROM and an antalgic gait

• Severe: marked tenderness and swelling, less than 50% joint ROM, and a severe limp
What is RICE?
• R - Rest
• I - Ice
• C - Compression
• E - Elevation
What is myositis ossificans?
• a frequent complication of muscular contusion and an associated hematoma
• refers to reactive formation of bone within muscle or the ossification of a muscular hematoma
Myositis ossificans occurs most commonly in what muscles?
• quadriceps
• hamstrings
• brachialis
What are clinical sequelae of rhabdomyolysis?
• acute renal failure
• metabolic acidosis
• hypovolemia
• hyperkalemia
What are some pathologic changes in soft tissue and bones that strains can cause?
• tendon degeneration
• stress fractures
• nerve entrapment
Why are ice and heat used to treat musculoskeletal injuries?
• Ice will decrease vascular permeability and reduce swelling (used in the first 24 hours)
• Heat will increase vascular permeability and promote perfusion and healing
Which part of the bone will heal faster from fracture, the cancellous (metaphysis) bone or the cortical (diaphyseal) bone?
• Fractures of metaphyseal or cancellous bone usually heal quite rapidly in contrast to cortical or diaphyseal bone
• Cortical (diaphyseal) bone heals more slowly due to differences in blood supply and bone turnover rate
Describe the different classifications of Salter-Harris fractures
• Type I- through the physis.
• Type II- through the physis and metaphysis.
• Type III- through the physis and epiphysis.
• Type IV- through the physis, metaphysis and epiphysis.
• Type V- crush injury to the physis
What is a compound fracture?
a compound fracture is an open fracture
What are impacted fractures and where are they commonly seen?
• low-energy injuries in which two bone fragments are jammed together
• commonly seen in metaphyseal bone (ex. femoral neck, distal radius or tibial plateau fractures)
What are the 3 principles of fracture care?
• reduction of deformity
• maintenance of reduction
• rehabilitation of function
What are complications of casts and traction?
• burns
• circulatory impairment
• pressure sores
• skin irritation
• skin breakdown.

• Excessive traction can cause nonunion, malunion and peripheral nerve injury
What are complications of musculoskeletal injuries?
• ARDS (fat embolism)
• Atelectasis
• Compartment Syndrome
• Ectopic bone formation
• Nerve compression
• Osteomyelitis