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37 Cards in this Set

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APPREHENSION TEST
The patient is seated Shoulder is slowly abducted and externally rotated.

for dislocation
hamiltons test
. Examiner places a strait edge (ruler) at the lateral border of the affected shoulder from the acromion to the elbow.

dislocation
Assessment for Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow
cozens test
mills test
Assessment for Medial Epicondylitis

to test:
Seated patient slightly flexes the elbow. Hand and wrist are supinated. Examiner applies steady pressure to the supinated hand in attempt to extend the elbow and wrist. Patient resists this movement with active flexion
GOLFER’S ELBOW TEST
Assessment for Medial or Lateral Collateral Ligament Instability at the Elbow
ELBOW LIGAMENTOUS INSTABILITY or abduction/adduction test or valgus/vagus test
Assessment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (Median Nerve Palsy
phalen's sign (reverse prayer)
Tenosynovitis of thumb/wrist
finkelstein test
+=pain in snuff box
abductor pollicus longus and abductor pollicus brevis
Assessment for Congenital Dislocation of the Hip Articulation
hip telescoping test

The patient is supine. Examiner flexes the affected hip to 90 degrees and the knee to 90 degrees. The femur is pushed toward the examining table and then pulled up from the table. If the test is positive, a distinct pistoning of the hip is noted.
Assessment for Femoral Portion Structural Deficiency or Tibial Portion Structural Deficiency
allis test


look at patient's bent knee from front of table and at side of table

side:
front of table:femoral deficiency or tibial length discrepency

side of table:it indicates femoral length discrepancy (dysplasia) or ipsilateral coxa pathology (dislocation
MILL’S TEST how to perform
Patient seated. Examiner passively and fully flexes the patient’s elbow, then flexes patient’s wrist. The patient’s fingers are fully flexed. The forearm, wrist, and hand are all fully flexed in supination. The examiner maintains wrist and finger flexion while extending the elbow. At maximum elbow extension, with the wrist and fingers still flexed, the forearm is pronated
test for meniscus
APLEY’S COMPRESSION / DISTRACTION TEST

†BOUNCE HOME TEST

MCMURRAY’S TEST

†STEINMAN’S TEST
Anterior Drawer: The patient is lying supine; the knee is flexed to ninety degrees. The patient’s foot is held on the table by the examiner. The tibia is pulled forward on the femur. Normal movement is approximately 6 mm
drawer test

for cruciate ligament etc
The patient is supine. The patient’s knee is held between full extension and 30 degrees of flexion. The patient’s femur is stabilized with one hand as the tibia is moved forward.

mushy end feel is felt =+
LAUCHMAN’S TEST

ACL problem
The patient is lying supine, and the affected knee is in full extension. With the flat of the hand, the examiner compresses the patella against the femur. If this produces point tenderness and pain at the patellar margin, the sign is present. If no pain is produced, the patella is then rubbed transversely, against the femur.

patellar tracking disorder
FOUCHET’S (PATELLA GRINDING) TEST
CLARKE’S SIGN how to test
The patient is lying supine with the affected knee extended. The examiner presses down with the web of the hand at a side that is slightly proximal to the upper pose or base of the patella. The examiner pushes the patella into an inferior position, which stretches the quadriceps muscles and tendon. The patient is instructed to contract the quads as the examiner restricts the movement of the patella slightly by continuing to press down (not completely blocking patellar movement).

+=Chondromalacia Patellae
The patient is supine with the knee extended. Pressure is applied over the patella.
PATELLA BALLOTTEMENT TEST

+ if feel for floating
The patient is seated, with the quadriceps muscles relaxed and the knee flexed to 30 degrees over the examiner’s leg. The examiner gently and slowly pushes the patella laterally. If the patella feels as if it is about to dislocate, the patient will contract the quads to bring the patella back in line
apprehension test

+= pain

also for dislocation of knee recurrent
tests for hip dislocation
alli's test
hip teloscoping test
Grade 1: <33%
Grade 2: 33-50%
Grade 3: >50%
A-P view and Frog-leg view
Still growing bone; there is a disrelationship of head of femur
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis
Unhappy Triad what 3 structures
Anterior cruciate ligament
Medial collateral ligament
Medial meniscus (more commonly injured because more firmly attached and there is a valgus angle at the knee) (more in females than males)
External rotation of tibia with flexion
Associated with rapid growth spurt

Grade 1: <33%
Grade 2: 33-50%
Grade 3: >50%
A-P view and Frog-leg view
Still growing bone; there is a disrelationship of head of femur


loss internal rotation

Best diagnostic sign: when knee flexed there is external rotation and abduction (thigh rolls
slipped capital femoral epiphyis
McMurray's test, snapping or clicking can be associated with

Runs down along medial femoral condyle
In proximity to meniscus
synovial plica
due to overloading and blood flow disturbance usually affecting medial femoral condyle--bulge due to partial seperation of bone fragment
osteochondritis dissecans
very painful softening of cartilage
bits of cartilage can come free in joint cause synovial effusion

large q angle

muscle imbalances: vastus medialis
chondromalcia
avascular necrosis types:
Brailsford disease: radial head
Burns disease: humeral trochlea
2. Freiberg disease - second metatarsal head
3. Keinböck disease - lunate
3. Köhler disease - tarsal navicular
4. Legg-Calves-Perthes - femoral head
5. Panner disease - capitellum
Affects medial tibial plateau
Cause of severe genu verum (bowlegged)
Distortion in tibia
Sometimes bracing used to correct
Can be unilateral or bilateral
Q angle is varus
Normal progression in infant to toddling from walking (varus) then into valgus (knock-knee) (lateral shifting in gait)
blout's disease
what is genu varum and valgum
varum: bowlegged

valgum=knock knee
avascular necrosis of 2nd metatarsal head
Difference in size and density, flattening of head, irregularity in joint
Associated more commonly in women (usually with wearing high heels but may be idiopathic)
Forefoot pain
Freiberg's Disease
Tarso navicular
Painful limp may walk on outside of foot to relieve pain
Self-limiting
Usually age 4-5
Köhler’s Disease
Defined as idiopathic avascular necrosis of the epiphysis f the femoral head (capital femoral epiphysis)
1. Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease
tests for what disease:

"Roll" test for muscle spasm - motion palpation of hip
r. Atrophy with tape measurer


If it occurs after 12 years of age, it is referred to as Adolescent ischemic necrosis
1. Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease
Progressive Stages in Joint Pathology of RA
1. Starts with inflammation and enlargement (synovitis)
2. Progression of inflammation with pannus formation; beginning destruction of cartilage and mild osteoporosis
3. Subsidence of inflammation: fibrous ankylosis
4. Bony ankylosis; advanced osteoporosis
Stage 2: of RA involves
Pannus: hypertrophy of synovial villi and white cells migrated into area: very destructive
rheumatid nodules seen where in body
lungs in RA patients
Determination of skeletal maturation
Scale from 1-5 for scoliosis
risser sign
Also x-ray left wrist and hand because this x-ray can be compared with
with Greulich and Pyle atlas, compares chronologic age with bone age
structural vs nonstuctural scoliosis
structural: curve is flexible and corrects on one side bending toward convex side

structural: fails to correct on bending side