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14 Cards in this Set

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Most neck rotation occurs
- at the atlas and axis
C3-7 have how many joints each?
- 3
- disc in the front and paired facet joints in the back
Spurling test
Applying downward pressure while the subject laterally flexes the head. Pain into the extremity toward the same side during compression is a positive sign for nerve root compression. Pain felt in the opposite side is called a REVERSE SPURLING’S SIGN
Distraction test
- distract (pull up) the subjects' head from the trunk
- positive = existing complaints disappear
Oblique views of the neck woudl be taken if ...
suspected foraminal narrowing in degenerative diseases
Acute Disc herniation
- neck pain, headache, dermatome pain and referred pain to shoulder and medial scap
- BABINSKI SIGN
- fasciculations
- loss of deep tendon reflexes
- MRI needed for DX
- Tx= foam collar, pain meds, surgery last resort
Cervical Spondylosis
- stabbing pain in border of arm, neck pain/stiffness
- CHRONIC SUBOCCIPITAL HEADACHE
- loss of cervical flexibility, myelopathy
- Xray shows ostophytes, disc space narrowing, facet disease
- neck collar may halt progression
- if very serious = decompressive laminectomy
Osteoarthritis
- asymtomatic but may cause diffuse neck pain, complainst of unsteady walking, urinary frequency and urgency, ELECTRICAL SHOCK SENSATIONS
- Xray shows ostephyte formation anteriorly
- cervical collar, rest, analgesics, or PT
Thoracic outlet syndrome
- pain, numbness, and or swelling depending on stucture that is compromised
- pain radiates
- paresthesias are common and distributed to the volar aspect of the FOURTH AND FIFTH digits
- sensory symptoms may be aggrevated at night
- Xray - may show CERVICAL RIB PATHOLOGY
- MRI may show impaired blood flow
- Tx = local heat, analgesics, muscle relaxants and exercise
- surgery only if vascular or neural pathways are severely impaired
Torticalis
- may follow URI or trauma in children
- mass may be felt in SCM
- head rotated to one side
- TX= active ROM exercises
Erbs palsy
- upper trunk nerve injury of brachial plexus
- MOST COMMON BIRTH RELATED NEUROPRAXIA
- lesion of C5 and 6 roots, often from difficult birth
- arm hangs at side internally rotated and extenteded at the elbow
- may also becaused by a cervical rib
- therapy can help if not severe
- if no improvement by 6 mon, should have surgery and nerve grafting
Dermatomes
C5 – shoulder & lat. arm
C6 – lat. forearm & thumb
C7 – middle finger
C8 – little finger
T1 – medial forearm & elbow
Myotomes
C5 – elbow flexors
C6 – wrist extensors
C7 – elbow extension
C8 – finger flexors
T1 – finger abductors
Spondylosis
Spondylolysis
Spondylolithesis
Spondylosis – degenerative change, osteophytes, disc space changes
Spondylolysis – pars interarticularis defect
Spondylolithesis – slipping of one vertebra on another