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31 Cards in this Set

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t/f with standard growth curves, it's seen that the height and weight rates increase as a percent body size
F
height and weight rates decline as % body size
premature birth babies (born <2500gm) catch up by how many years old?
by 3 years old.
if child need HgH and they stop, what happens. why might a kid need hGH?
hormonal deficiency, congenital heart defect or home psychosocial stress. falls off curve w/o hGH
is the home psychosocial stress real in gorwth reduction rates?
yes, put in boarding school = healthier. longer hostile environment = longer side effects.
t/f excess nutrtion later will compensate for a chronic inadequate diet. t/f kids bigger this century and maturing more quickly
f. will NOT compensate

t. children larger at all ages and mature more quickly
girls are reaching menarche older or younger than before?
A: girls are getting better nutrition, body ready to be adult earlier, Menarche early
4 fxn's of oral cavity?
1. respiration
2. swallowing
3. mastication
4. speech
what's the difference b/w respiration in newborn and infant and later?
newborn: obligate nasal breather
infant: able to open airway by moving mandible down & positioning tongue down and forward.
later mouth breathing becomes possible 6m-1yr
how does crossbite development relate to respiration?
can't breath thru nose well, tongue to low posture - narrows max arch, broadens man arch = post crossbite
where is the infants tongue position during the act of suckling?
it's a reflex: tongue anteriorly = rest position. suckling reflex ends during 1st year.
(mandibular thrust moves with tongue)
when's transition from infant to adult swallowing happen?
at age 2. drink from cup. lips relaxed. tongue against alveolar process. posterior teeth contact
1990 study shows __% of 8 YO's have adult swallowing. problem with retained suckling activity?
60% adult swallowing 40% transition.
problem is anterior open bite & difficult to establish adult swallowing
what's the difference between adult and young child masticating?
adult more consistant - stronger muscles elevating. open straight vertically.
child has lateral movment on opening & irregular chewing patterns
if an adult continues with child-like chewing patterns, what is often seen?
adult with anterior open bite. the transition coincides with eruption of canines, teeth effect pattern, but not the cause of effects
what are earliest 1, 2,3 & 4 latest sounds made by tongue
1. P, M, V
2. T, D
3. S, Z
4. R (age 4-5)
what are the major events (changes) occurring during adolescence?
sexual maturity attained -> juvi to adult. growth development. 2ndary sexcharacteristics, sex organs, get fertile, pysiological changes
what are the advantages of adolescence period for ortho treatment?
adolescence: mixed to perminant. Mj growth spurt of dentofacial complex and differential growth rate of max/Mand. mand catches up
what is the endocrine basis (cascade of events) that results in the changes seen in adolescence?
growth spurt: hypothalamus grf (gonadotropin release factor) via pit portal sys.to ant pit. that release pit gonadotrpins into sys. circulation
mechanisms: what is the endocrine basis (cascade of events) that results in the changes seen in adolescence?
gonadotropins target males - testosterone, and female sex hormone
females - estrogen/ progesterone & adrenal cortex also releases additional hormones (even some for males).
why are there multiple steps in the regulation of hormone production?
amplification in 3 stages.
1. gonadotropin releasing factor (x100-1000)
2. pituitary gonadotropin (x1000)
3. sex hormones (steroids)
how do females and males typically differ in timing of adolescent changes?
females 2 years earlier than males (variable). biological (developmental) age not equal to chronological.
what are the physical characteristics of the stages of adolescence in females and , and where do these fall on a plot of the pubertal growth spurt (on growth rate curves?)
females: 1. start: breat buds, pubic hair, 1 yr before PHV
2. growth spurt peak, axillary hair, coincides with PHV
3. growth spurt declining: onset of menstration, ending of growth spurt, adult body pattern (hips, body fat distribution) 1-1.5 yr after PHV
what are the physical characteristics of the stages of adolescence in and males, and where do these fall on a plot of the pubertal growth spurt (on growth rate curves?)
pre grow spurt 1. subcutaneous fat (look obese?), scrotal enlargement, 2 yrs before HPV
Start growth spurt 2. fat redistributes, pubic hair, penis grows, 1 yr before PHV
peak of growth spurt 3. axillary hair, facial hair on upper lip, muscles grow, with HPV
growth ends 4. facial hair on chin, bigger muscles, 1-2 yr after PHV
growth cessation: what happens to the particular growth sites when growth ceases?
maturation occurs, when maturation rate exceeds growth acceleration, growth cessation occurs (seen with epiphyseal plates, sutures, and surface modeling).
growth cessation: what happens to the particular growth sites when growth ceases?
epiphyseal plates: cartilage gone, all bone
sutures: adjacent bones fuse, sutures become interlocked
surface remodel: greatly reduced
why the variability in heights b/w males and females?
early phv: smaller adult, later, bigger. timing: females phv 2 yrs earlier. silimar size until that growth spurt. epiphyseal plates close slower in males. grow for more time after phv.
how do dental and skeletal ages compare (correlate) especially in females compared to males?
variable relative to chronological age. Dental & Skeletal not well correlated. Females skeletal age tends to be ahead of dental age.
Males - dental age ahead of skeletal age
how does growth of maxilla compare to mandible during the growth spurt?
13 y.o. female not much growth remaining, but male has significant growth remaining.
in pubertal growth: mand. growth > max growth. chin becomes more prominang and less convex face profile (variation)
orthopedic corrections
protraction facemask
chin cup
high pull head gear
protraction facemask - enhance forward max growth
chin cup - reduce forward mand. growth
high pull head gear - reduce forward and vertical max growth
common methods for assessing chronological, skeletal, dental and developmental (biol) ages?
chrono - DOB
skeletal - hand/wrist xray
dental - eruption pattern
developmental - physiological indicators
if female pt had ortho concerns, what would be a potential prob. or limitation regarding ortho options if pt waited until all perminant teeth erupted before seeking ortho consult? why less prob for males?
" work with growth "