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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the alveolar-capillary barrier is ___(1) microns thick and a RBC is ___(2) microns thick
(1) 0.5 microns
(2) 7-8microns
what is interstitial space?
space between alveolar epithelium and cells that make up wall of capillary
what makes up wall of alveolar?
alveolar epithelium
what is barrier of diffusion?
narrow barrier between air and blood
contraction of inspiratory muscles(diaphragm, chest wall) does what to thoracic cavity, Interpleural pressure, lung volume, and alveolar pressure?
-Thoracic cavity enlarges
-Interpleural pressure decreses
-alveolar pressure decreases
-lung volume increases
Before breathing: Barometric pressure (<, =,>) Alveolar pressure
Before breathing: Barometric pressure = Alveolar pressure (no airflow)
while breathing: Barometric pressure (<, =,>) Alveolar pressure
while breathing: Barometric pressure > Alveolar pressure
What would have to be done to alveolar pressure to make air enter lungs?
make alveolar pressure lower than barometric pressure.
What is the volume of air that enters the lung during normal inspiration?
approximately 0.5L
What is tidal volume?
volume of air that enters lung in one breath
At what intrapleural pressure would your lungs collapse?
What does exercise do to Tidal Volume?
exercise increases tidal volume
What is eupnea?
breathing at rest
what would tachypnea do to respiratory rate(f) and Tidal volume?
Respiratory Rate(f) would increase and Tidal volume would decrease. (ex. animals do this to lose heat or when their excited)
dypsnea shows what characteristics?
labored, difficult breathing
Intrapleural pressure is usually (negative/positive)
IP pressure usually negative
in reference to muscles of inspiration, which muscles contain smooth muscle, and which ones contain skeletal muscle?
Smooth muscle-respiratory airway
skeletal muscle-muscles in chest wall and diaphragm.
what is a pneumothorax?
collapsed lung
if there is a pneumothorax or collapsed lung on the left side of the heart, would it do the same to the right?
no the intrapleural space in the left lung will stay at negative pressure and continue to respire.
during inspiration, what nerves are stimulated to make diaphragm contract?
stimulation of medullar nerves, stimulationg of phrenic nerves, ACh released, making diaphragm contract
name cell types and give description of their function
here it is
label graphs for: Volume, IP pressure, flow, alveolar pressure. (note inspiration for left and expiration for right side of graphs.)
here it is
What stimulates phrenic nerve?
Neurons in medulla in brain
At what part of spinal cord are the phrenic nerves originated?
what are intercostal muscles?
muscles connecting ribs
what would make external intercostal muscles contract?
what would make internal intercostal muscles contract?
When external intercostal muscles contract, what happens to ribs, chest circumference, and volume of chest.
ribs are elevated, circumference of chest is increased, volume of chest in increased
Intercostal innervated by _____(1), originating from ____(2) region.
(1)spinal motors neurons
(2)originating from thoracic region
What is the function of scalene, an accessory muscle?
elevates 1st two ribs.
What is the function of sternomastoids?
pull out on sternum
During ____ you would use accessory muscles, such as neck muscles.
which line has lower compliance
lower line or the one shifted right has lower compliance
label all red areas with I, or E for inspiration or expiration
here it is
pulmonary fibrosis is when elastic tissue is replace by fibrous tissue in lungs, making it less distensible. What affect does this have on compliance?
lowers compliance
Compliance (increases/decreases) with increasing lung volume.
During inhalation, Volume of each alveolus (increases/decreases) slightly
increases or expands
what is surface tension with respect to alveolus?
when alveolus expands forces that draw water molecules together creates surface tension. expanding alveoli has to overcome surface tension, influences compliance.
What affect does decreasing surfactant have on compliance?
decreases compliance as lung becomes more stiff.(related to respiratory distress syndrome of neonates because Type II cells not significantly mature.)
what affect does surfactant have on surface tension?
reduces surface tension by reducing attraction of adjacent water molecules, increasing compliance
At end of inspiration, what is the normal change in pressure?
What is the equation for Transpulmonary pressure?
Pressure of Alveoli - Intrapleural pressure
Prior to inspiration, alveolar pressure is 0 and intrapleural pressure is -5. what is the transpulmonary pressure?
0-(-5)=5 cmH2O
At end of inhalation, alveolar pressure is 0 and Intrapleural Pressure is -8. What is the transpulmonary pressure. If pressure is 5cmH2O prior to inspiration, what is the total change is pressure?
(-0-(-8)=8cmH2O) transpulmonary pressure
(-5-(-8)=3cmH20) for change of pressure
what is transpulmonary pressure?
Pressure exerted in system to expand lung