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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Nervous System that refers to brain & spinal cord.
CNS
any neural structure outside CNS is referred to as...
PNS
afferent fibers send info
towards CNS
efferent fibers send info
away from CNS (motor)
Name of fibers connecting/innervating skeletal muscle
Somatic motor fibers (mostly under voluntary control
These organs are under involuntary control, and are in the _______ nervous system
Visceral organs, Autonomic
In this division of the ANS, postganglionic neurons are typically within or near organ
Parasympathetic division
Thoraco-Lumbar is which division of ANS?
Sympathetic
Cranial Sacral is which division of ANS?
Parasympathetic
This part of the brain has significant influence on autonomic nerves. (influences preganglionic)
Hypothalamus
Cholinergic receptors are those that bind ____.(naturally occuring).
Acetylcholine
Adrenergic receptors are those that bind ______.(naturally occuring)
norepinephrine and epinephrine.
In parasympathetic nerves, preganglionic receptors are _____-_____(1) receptors, and postganglionic receptors are _____-_____(2) receptors.
(1)nicotinic-cholinergic
(2) muscarinic-cholinergic
In sympathetic nerves, preganglionic receptors are _____-_____(1) receptors, while postganglionic receptors are _____-_____(2).
(1)nicotinic-cholinergic
(2)Beta/Alpha-Adrenergic
Stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors on the heart (increases/decreases) heart rate and force of contraction.
Increases
Stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors on intestinal smooth muscle(increases/decreases) the number and force of contractions.
Decreases
Receptors for which the order of agonist potency is epinephrine> norepinephrine>>isoproterenol are known as _____.
alpha-adrenergic receptors
Receptors for which the order of agonist potency is isoproterenol >epineprine>>norepinephrine are known as____.
beta-adrenergic receptors
Agonists and antagonists of Alpha-adrenergic(most potent first)
Agonists: Epinephrine, norepinephrine, isoproterenol, and phenylephrine.
Antagonists: Phentolamine(mentioned in class), and phenoxybenzamine
Agonists and antagonists of beta-adrenergic(most potent first)
Agonist: Isoproterenol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.
Antagonist: Propanolol
Agonist and antagonist for nicotinic-cholinergic
agonist: ACh, nicotine
Antagonist: curare(skeletal)
Agonist and antagonist for muscarinic-cholinergic.
agonist: ACh, muscarine
Antagonist: Atropine
What is ischemia?
Reduction in blood flow. Restriction in blood supply.
What is hypoxia?
Reduction in Oxygen.
What is hypercapnia?
Increased CO2, too much carbon dioxide in the blood.
a-heart
b-pulmonary
c-systemic
d-capillaries
e-arteries
f-veins
label these percentages of blood volume to correspondings sections of circulatory system. (graph from class)
Anaerobic respiration creates lactic acid, increasing proton concentration in muscles, a condition known as....
Acidosis
Give cycle of blood flow through systemic and pulmonary. include oxygen and Carbon dioxide Xfer and relative concentration
Pulmonary: RA>RV>PA>pulmonary cap. (increase O2)>PV>>>>>>
Systemic: LA>LV>Aorta>Systemic cap.(decrease O2, Increase CO2)>Vena Cava(deoxygenated)>RA
Function of valves
Prevent backflow of blood
How thick are capillaries
one cell thick
In which blood flow system is velocity lowest but has the greatest surface area?
Capillaries
What is a hemorrhage?
Loss of blood volume
List components of blood plasma(12 mentioned in class), and major component.
Major component is H2O. Amino acids, glucose and carbs, lipids, O2, CO2, N2,Plasma Proteins(globulins, albumin, and fibrinogen.
What % of blood volume is plasma?
55%
How viscous is plasma relative to water?
More viscous (roughly 1.8 times greater).
What is the osmolarity of Blood plasma?
200-300 Osmols/L.
What is the major formed element in blood
RBCs
What is the size of a RBC, what does it contain that binds to O2, and how long does a RBC live?
7-8 micrometers, hemoglobin, and they live about 120 days.
The proportion of blood volume that is occupied by RBCs is called the...
hematocrit
What creates Erythrocytes or RBCs? (among other cells)
Bone marrow
If the hematocrit is decreased, then the ____ is decreased.
RBC count
What is anemia?
Abnormally low hemoglobin concentration.
What concentration of RBCs is considered normal?
12-15g Hb/100mL of blood.
hemoglobin is made in.
bone marrow
What can cause anemia?
Lower iron intake
What is polycythemia?
icreased RBCs, which means increased hematocrit, leading to increased O2 capacity. ( this can occur at high altitudes, or blood doping)
how thick (in microns) is the alveolus-capillary barrier?
0.5 microns