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47 Cards in this Set

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LABEL: Mixed venous blood, arterial blood, mitochondria, alveolar gas, room air, tracheal gas
here it is
at the end of maximal inspiration, alveolar pressure is (<,>,=) to atmospheric pressure
at the end of MAXIMAL inspiration, alveolar pressure is = to atmospheric pressure
at the end of normal inspiration, alveolar pressure is (<,>,=) to atmospheric pressure.
at the end of normal inspiration, alveolar pressure is = to atmospheric pressure.
What is apnea?
cessation of breathing
What kind of respiration would cause abdominal walls to contract?
during maximal expiration, abdominal walls contract
Compliance of the lung is measured under a (dynamic/static) condition.
Static condition. This is when flow equals zero.
What is the equation for resistance in airway?
change in pressure/Flow
HARD:
When flow = zero; (P in mouth-P in airway)/Tracheal Air flow. what does this measure and under what conditions?
measure compliance of lung under static conditions.
What happens to lung volume as airway resistance increases
Lung volume decreases
Where do parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions innervate in airway and what kind of muscle is innervated?
innervate smooth muscle withing walls of airway
What does vagus do to bronchi, what does that do to airway resistance? What neurotransmitter is released by vagus?
vagus causes bronchoconstriction which increases airway resistance. Acetylcholine (ACh)released.
what division of ANS causes bronchodilation? what neuroxmitter is released? and what type of receptors receive this bronchodilating neuroxmitter?
Sympathetic division causes bronchodilation by releasing the neuroxmitter Norepinephrine on smooth muscle.
describe neuronal activity if lungs were introduced to an irritant such as smoke, dust, or pollen.
sensory nerve in the vagus will be stimulated, which stimulates motor neurons in the medulla, causing bronchoconstriction.
what does histamine do to bronchi?
histamine causes bronchoconstriction.
thromboxane is a prostaglandin that causes bronchi to...
constrict
what is functional residual capacity (FRC)?
volume of air left in lung after normal expiration (2L)
after maximal inhalation, what is the volume of air in lungs?
about six liters.
is there any volume in the lungs after maximal expiration? if so, how much.
Yes, about 1.2L.
minute volume or breathing volume=_____
minute volume or breathing volume=total ventilation
what part of respiratory system contains anatomical dead space?
conducting zone.
Respiratory rate(f) refers to...
how often we breathe
What is equation for expiratory volume?
Expiratory volume=respiratory rate x total ventilation.
If someone breathed 15 times in a minute at tidal volume, what is the total ventilation?
15breaths/min x 0.5L/breaths=7.54L/min
What is perfusion?
blood flow in the lung
Can physiological dead space be less than anatomical dead space?
no, physiological dead space equal to or greater than anatomical dead space, never less.
What is boyle's law?
P1V1=P2V2 (or V1/V2=P2/P1)
-If pressure of intrapleural space is is decreased, volume is (increased/decreased).
-Whose law does this follow?
-pressure decreased, volume increased(Volume is inversely proportional to pressure). -Boyle's Law.
-If temperature is increased, volume is (increased/decreased).
-Whose law does this follow?
-T increased, V increased
-Charle's Law
What is Charle's law?
V1/V2=T1/T2
21% of atmosphere ambient air is...
oxygen; 21%
79% of atmosphere ambient air is...
Nitrogen, N2
What is barometric pressure at sea level? Is there an increase or decrease in pressure as altitiude increases?
760mmHg.
Altitude decreases barometric pressure.
Does carbon dioxide or oxygen cross capillary-alveolar barrier more quickly? Why?
Carbon dioxide crosses about 20 times as fast as oxygen, this is because CO2 is more fluid soluble.
What is perfusion?
blood flow in the lung
Can physiological dead space less than anatomical dead space?
no, physiological dead space equal to or greater than anatomical dead space, never less.
What is boyle's law?
P1V1=P2V2 (or V1/V2=P2/P1)
-If pressure of intrapleural space is is decreased, volume is (increased/decreased).
-Whose law does this follow?
-pressure decreased, volume increased(Volume is inversely proportional to pressure). -Boyle's Law.
-If temperature is increased, volume is (increased/decreased).
-Whose law does this follow?
-T increased, V increased
-Charle's Law
What is Charle's law?
V1/V2=T1/T2
21% of atmosphere ambient air is...
oxygen; 21%
79% of atmosphere ambient air is...
Nitrogen, N2
What is barometric pressure at sea level? Is there an increase or decrease in pressure as altitiude increases?
760mmHg.
Altitude decreases barometric pressure.
Does carbon dioxide or oxygen cross capillary-alveolar barrier more quickly? Why?
Carbon dioxide crosses about 20 times as fast as oxygen, this is because Co2 is more fluid soluble.
Why is there a decrease in oxygen gas pressure when gas moves into trachea from ambient air?
some oxygen gas becomes water vapor.
What is the pressure of Carbon dioxide in:
-Atmosphere
-Trachea
-Alveola
-Arterial
-mixed venous blood
-Atmosphere is 0mmHg
-Trachea is 0mmHg
-Alveola is 40mmHg
-Arterial is 40mmHg
-Mixed venous blood is 46mmHg
What is the Alveolar-arterial(A-a) gradient for Carbon dioxide?
40-40= 0mmHg
Perfusion is equivalent to ___ in lungs.
FLOW