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138 Cards in this Set

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sensations
environmental stimuli that we are capable of receiving through one or more of the five sense mechanisms
attention
part of the perceptual process in which we acknowledge the reception of senses from the environment, The major characteristics involved in attending to physical stimuli include size, intensity, frequency, contrast, motion, change, and novelty
perception
the process of interpreting and organizing the sensations we attend to
perceptual inferences
the process of extrapolating from a small amount of information to form a complete perception about an object or event. Often we are required to act on only limited pieces of information from which we infer what more information might tell us
perceptual organization
the process of organizing our perceptions into recognizable patterns. Four of the principles we use to assist us in this effort include figure-ground separation, similarity, proximity, and closure
cognitive complexity
the degree to which individuals have developed complex categories for organizing information
theory x vs. theory y
a theory proposed by Douglas McGregor that explains two opposite perceptual styles of managers. Managers who espouse Theory X see employees as lazy and refusing to work, while managers who espouse Theory Y believe employees are dedicated and willing to work
halo effect
one of the perceptual errors in which individuals allow one characteristic about a person to influence their evaluations of other personality characteristics
selective perception
a source of perceptual caused by people choosing to perceive only the information that they find acceptable
implicit personalities
the process of allowing our personal stereotypes and expectations regarding certain kinds of people to create a perceptual set that influences how we respond to other people
projection
a form of perceptual bias in which we project our own personal feelings and attitudes onto others as a means of helping us interpret their attitudes and feelings
primary effect
the tendency for first impressions and early information to unduly influence our evaluations and judgment
stereotyping
the process of using a few attributes about an object to classify it and then responding to it as a member of a category rather than as a unique object
Pygmalion effect (self-fulfilling prophecy)
a process that explains how the expectations in the mind of one person, such as a teacher or researcher, come to influence the behaviors of others, such as students or subjects, such that the latter achieves the former's expectations
personality
the attributes and predispositions associated with each individual that make that person unique and predict how that person will likely behave in many situations
fundamental attribution error
the tendency to overestimate the influence of personality factors when interpreting the actions of others
attribution theory
a theory that explains how we assign responsibility for behavior to personality characteristics or environmental circumstances
Big Five model
five broad personality traits that seem to be conceptually different and empirically distinct (conscientiousness, agreeableness, emotional stability, openness to experience, extroversion)
locus of control
a personality trait that is determined by whether individuals think the rewards they obtain are based on internal factors such as knowledge, effort, and skill, or external factors such as luck, chance, and fate
self-efficacy
a belief in one's ability to perform a specific activity, determined by how well the person has learned and practiced the task; acquired by four kinds of information cues: enactive mastery, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and perception of one's psychological state
hypothetical construct
an abstract concept regarding the relationships between people and events that exists because we can operationally define it even though it does not have a physical reality (e.g., satisfaction, intelligence, commitment, and honesty)
attitude
the positive or negative feelings we hold toward an object; there are three attitude components: cognitive, affective, and behavioral tendency
emotional intelligence
the competencies that allow us to perceive, understand, and regulate emotions in ourselves and others; it is organized into four dimensions representing the recognition of emotion in ourselves versus others and the regulation of emotions in ourselves versus others: self awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management
behavioral intentions
the extent to which we actually expect to perform a given act
behavioral evaluations
the intervening process between behavior and attitudes in which we interpret and make sense of our behavior
job satisfaction
consists of the attitudes employees hold regarding factors in their work environment, particularly pay and benefits, the characteristics of the job, supervision, fellow workers, and opportunities for advancement
workaholic
a person who is so involved in their work that they are addicted to working and unable to pursue other meaningful activities without feeling nervous, anxious, or guilty
organizational commitment
the relative strength of an individual's identification with and involvement in an organization; three characteristics associated with it: normative commitment, affective commitment, and continuance commitment
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
a theory of motivation and personality, developed by Abraham Maslow, that is based on a hierarchy of five human needs: physiological, safety and security, social, ego and esteem, and self-actualization
self actualization
the highest-order need in Maslow's hierarchy that consists of the need for self-realization, continuous self development, and ever-increasing personal fulfillment; the tendency for individuals to seek fulfillment and to achieve all that they have the potential to achieve according to their genetic blueprint
prepotency
the idea that human needs are arranged in a hierarchical order and that higher-level needs do not emerge until lower-level needs are mostly satisfied
learned needs
needs that have been acquired by the events individuals have experiences within their culture. David McClelland studied three learned needs (achievement, affiliation, and power) and described how these needs were acquired and how they influenced behavior
need for achievement
a personality trait that reflects the importance of achievement and upward striving in a person's life. High-need achievers are characterized by a desire for personal responsibility, moderate levels of risk, and immediate feedback on their performance
need for affiliation
the need to associate with other people and obtain their friendship and approval
need for power
the desire to influence or control other people wither for the sake of personal satisfaction or for the benefit of society
personal power
a manifestation of the need for power in which individuals strive for dominance and control over other individuals
social power
a form of the need for power in which individuals attempt to satisfy their power needs by working within a group to achieve group and organizational goals
aversive stimulus
an unpleasant or punishing stimulus
primary rewards
rewards or outcomes that are desirable because of their association with physiological requirements or comforts especially food, water, sex, rest, and the removal of pain
secondary rewards
learned rewards or outcomes that have a powerful influence on behavior because they are self-administered. They can become increasingly important or valued and they do not become satiated or filled
extrinsic rewards
rewards, such as praise, bonuses, and awards that are administered by external agents
intrinsic rewards
rewards that are self-administered such as feelings of personal fulfillment or pride and craftsmanship from doing a good job
reinforcement contingency
the relationship between behavior and its consequences
positive reinforcement contingency
when positive reinforcement is presented after the correct response is made
punishment contingency
when negative reinforcement or punishment is associated with a specific response
escape contingency
when the person is required to make a correct response in order to terminate a negative condition that is already present in the environment
avoidance contingency
when a person is required to make a response to avoid an aversive stimulus
extinction contingency
when positive reinforcement is no longer associated with a response. In time the person stops making the response.
continuous reward schedule
a reward schedule that reinforces every correct response
intermittent reward schedule
a reward schedule that provides reinforcement for every nth response, where n is either a fixed or variable number
fixed ratio schedule
a reward schedule that rewards every nth response, where n is a fixed number
variable ratio schedule
an intermittent reinforcement schedule in which rewards are administered on the basis of a variable number of correct responses; lead to high rates of responding and are very resistant to extinction
fixed interval schedule
a reward schedule in which no reinforcement is given during a predetermined period of time, but after the end of that time interval, the first correct response is reinforced
variable interval schedule
a reinforcement schedule based on an interval of time; however, the length of the interval is not constant, but varies on a random basis
behavior modification
one of the earliest applications of reinforcement theories; the behavior of individuals is modified by analyzing the antecedents (environmental cues) and consequences of behavior and changing them as necessary
organizational behavior modification (OB Mod)
the application of reinforcement theories to organizational behavior
behavioral events
the basic unit of OB Mod, which consists of a specific act or response
behavioral contingency management (BCM)
the process of implementing an OB Mod program, in which behavioral events are specified and the conditions to achieve them are created
expectancy theory
a decision-making theory of motivation in which people decide what to do by subjectively estimating the probability of being able to perform an activity and whether that activity will be rewarding; comprised of three components: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence
expectancy (E→P)
the subjective probability that one's performance depends on the amount of effort exerted
instrumentality (P→R)
the perceived correlation between performance levels and possible rewards; the association can be positive or negative
valence
the desirability or perceived worth of the various work outcomes, either positive or negative
equity theory
a motivation theory derived from social comparison theory in which people compare their input-output ratios with the input-output ratios of others
job specialization
simplifying a job by reducing the number of elements or activities performed by a job holder; normally involves more repetitive activities with short work cycles
Scientific management
the industrial engineering movement started by Frederick W. Taylor that uses time and motion studies to simplify work processes, and differential piece rates to improve productivity
therblig
a basic body movement as defined by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, two pioneers of scientific management
ergonomics
the application of technology and engineering to the way people are able to move and function while working; sometimes called biotechnology, it considers the mutual adjustment of people and machines and how to create greater comfort and efficiency
job enlargement
making a job larger by adding more of the same kinds of elements (horizontal expansion/loading)
job enrichment
changing a job to significantly increase the level of variety, autonomy, and responsibility; involves changes in the content of the job, rather than just adding more of the same activities
Herzberg's hygiene-motivator theory
a motivation theory that claims the factors in a work setting can be separated into two lists of motivator factors and hygiene factors. Motivators create satisfaction and motivation but do not create dissatisfaction, while hygienes can create dissatisfaction but do not create motivation or satisfaction
hygienes
job factors associated with the job context, such as pay, working conditions, interpersonal relationships, and company policies
motivators
job factors associated with the content of a job such as achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, and the possibility of growth
job scope
the characteristics or attributes associated with a job, as defined by its breadth and depth
job breadth
one of the dimensions of job scope that refers to the number of different activities performed by a job holder
job depth
one of the dimensions of job scope that refers to the degree of decision making or control the worker exercises over how the job is to be performed
job characteristics model
a model explaining how job enrichment programs change the core dimensions of the job, which in turn influence the psychological states of workers, which in turn influence the work outcomes
motivating potential score (MPS)
a score measuring the degree of job enrichment, obtained by algebraically combining the scores for the job's five core dimensions
horizontal loading
a form of job enrichment where the job is enlarged by combining additional tasks or elements into a job
vertical loading
a form of job enrichment in which higher-level administrative and supervisory responsibilities are included in the job to create greater levels of responsibility
flextime
an alternative work schedule that allows employees to set their own work hours, subject to specific constraints, such as requiring them to work a specific number of hours per day or per week, and to be at work during the core period
core period
the period of time during the workday when employees on flexible hours must be at work
permanent part time
a work arrangement permitting employees to work less than 35 hours per week; considered a permanent, rather than a temporary, part-time job
job sharing
a work arrangement whereby two workers split one job; each worker is responsible for his or her share of the job; they split the salary, the benefits, and the responsibilities
compressed workweek
an alternative work schedule in which employees work fewer days per week by working more hours on the days they work. The most typical compressed workweek schedule is four ten-hour days called the 4/40 plan
telecommuting
a work arrangement that allows employees to work from home using a computer, facsimile machine, email, and the Internet
dependable role performance
the requirement that employees do their assigned jobs dependably in terms of acceptable quantity and quality performance
extra-role behaviors
behaviors that are important for organizational effectiveness but are not typically considered part of an employee's formal job description, such as performing cooperative acts, making creative suggestions, and protecting the company; also called "spontaneous and innovative" or "above and beyond" behaviors
ranking procedure
arranging employees along a scale from best to lowest performer
classification procedures
classifying employees into set categories such as "outstanding," "excellent," "good," "average," "fair," and "poor"
graphic rating scales
a performance evaluation method that identifies various job dimensions and contains scales that are used to rate each employee on each dimension
behaviorally anchored rating scales
a performance evaluation method that uses scales that are anchored by observable behavior to reduce the subjectivity and bias associated with ordinary graphic rating scales
descriptive essays
a method of evaluating employee performance that requires evaluators to write free-form essays describing the employee's performance
management by objectives (MBO)
a philosophy of management that reflects a positive, proactive way of managing; MBO requires all employees to establish written, measurable objectives that can later be used to evaluate performance
goal specificity
a measure of how clearly defined and measurable the goals are
goal difficulty
a measure of the amount of effort required to achieve the goal
goal acceptance
the degree to which individuals accept a specific goal as a realistic target
goal commitment
the degree to which individuals are dedicated to reach the goals they have adoptedthe degree to which individuals are dedicated to reach the goals they have adopted
360 degree appraisals
a method of evaluating employees that involves gathering performance feedback from people above them, below them, and beside them on an organizational chart
subordinate appraisals
evaluating the performance of supervisors and managers by asking subordinates to evaluate their supervisor's performance; also called upward appraisals
contributions appraisals
a performance appraisal that focuses on what the person has contributed to the organization; this information is used for deciding pay increases and promotions
personal development appraisals
a performance evaluation that focuses on helping employees develop their skills and abilities and involves a collaborative discussion
sandwich interview
a format for a performance evaluation interview in which negative comments are sandwiched between positive comments at the beginning and end of the interview
wage level decision
how much does one company pay relative to other companies for the same jobs?
wage structure decision
how much does one job pay relative to other jobs within the same company? How does a company justify paying some jobs more than others?
classification systems
classify jobs, from simple to complex, by describing different levels of skill, effort, and responsibility, and a pay range is associated with each classification
point method
involves the evaluation of the job descriptions and the assignments of different points to different degrees of skill, effort, and responsibility; the pay for each job is determined by how many points it receives
individual wage decisions
how much money should people who all perform the same job receive? What criteria, such as seniority and performance, should be used to pay one person more than another?
merit pay
increases in an employee's basic wage level based on performance levels
piece rate incentives
an incentive system that pays employees a specific amount of money for each unit of work they produced
skill based pay
a pay system in which an employee's pay level is partially determined by the employee's skills as a means of motivating them to acquire greater skills
pay for knowledge
a pay system in which an employee's pay level is determined in part by how many knowledge tests the employee has successfully completed
profit-sharing plan
a program that allows employees to share in the profits of a company based on the profitability of the company and an allocation formula determining each employee's share
cash versus deferred plans
profit sharing money can be distributed as cash at the end of the period or placed in a deferred fund that grows tax-free until retirement
Scanlon plan
a company-wide incentive plan that distributes money to employees based on a fixed ratio of labor costs to revenue; as revenue increases through higher productivity and employee suggestions, the amount of money given increases proportional to the fixed ratio
gainsharing
a pay-for-performance plan that shares some of the same economic gains with employees according to improvements in specific performance matters
grievance procedure
a formal procedure that allows employees who feel they have been wronged to express their complaints and have them resolved without fear of retaliation
discipline procedure
a formal procedure for correcting employee misbehavior and protecting the interests of the company
binding arbitration
the final step in most grievance procedures; the dispute is submitted to a neutral third party who has the authority to decide the issue and both parties agree beforehand to accept the decision
submission agreement
a statement prepared by both management and union that described the dispute and the potential solutions the arbitrator can decide
alternative dispute resolution
alternative methods of resolving complaints between employers and employees without resorting to civil court proceedings, such as mediation, negotiation, binding arbitrations, and rent-a-judge services
ombudsman
an impartial person designated by an organization to hear complaints from members who feel powerless and unable to obtain a fair hearing on their own
grievance committee
a committee assigned to hear complaints from employees and recommend a solution, usually in nonunion companies
open door policy
outcomes that occur naturally without anyone having to make them happen
fact finding
gathering information about employee complaints and sharing it with people who can resolve them
natural consequences
outcomes that occur naturally without anyone having to make them happen
logical consequences
punishment that is logically related to the violation of a rule
contrived consequences
punishment that is imposed by an agent and not related directly to the misbehavior
hot-stove rule
a guideline for administering punishment in a way that is direct, impartial, and immediate
due process
telling people who have misbehaved that they did wrong and allowing them to defend themselves in an impartial setting
just cause
taking disciplinary action only for good and sufficient reason
progressive discipline
a formal discipline procedure that contains progressively severe penalties for misbehavior
employment at will
the right to terminate an employment relationship for any reason
wrongful discharge
terminating an employee for reasons that are judged to be unfair because it violates the law or public policy
communicate the problem
be direct, specific, and nonpunishing
diagnose the problem
determine whether the problem is caused by a lack of motivation or ability
solving ability problems
use joint problem solving to find an acceptable solution
solving motivation problems
to solve motivation problems, communicate consequences first to the task, second to others, and third to you as the supervisor. Finally, if compliance has not been reached, communicate imposed consequences
emergent problems
when the other person raises other difficulties, deal with them before proceeding