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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Three elements of Lewin's Change Model
1. Unfreezing
2. Movement
3. Refreezing
Describe Unfreezing.
Reducing the forces that maintain the organization's behavior at its present level.

From class: The pain of staying the same should be greater than the pain of change.
How might unfreezing be accomplished?
Sometimes done through "psychological disconfirmation" - by introducing information that shows discrepancies between behaviors desired by organization members and those behaviors currently exhibited, members can be motivated to engage in change activities.
Describe Movement.
Shifts the behavior of the organization, department, or individual to a new level. Involves intervening in the system to develop new behaviors, values, and attitudes through changes in organizational structures and processes.

From Class: Toward new behaviors, stress is created by uncertainity.
Describe Refreezing.
Stabilizes the organization at a new state of equilibrium.

From Class: What gets rewarded gets repeated. What gets measured, gets better.
How might refreezing be accomplished?
Frequently accomplished through the use of supporting mechanisms that reinforce the new organizational state, such as organizational culture, norms, policies, and structures.
Describe Lewin's Change Model.
Provides the general framework for understanding organizational change. Other models have elaborated on the three steps.
What are the steps (origainal and professor) in the model from instructional systems?
Original steps:
Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.

Professor Steps: (AADDIEF)

Assessment, Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation, and Feedback (on-going)
What are the steps in the Action Research Model? (8)
1. Problem Identification -

Begins with key executive with power and influence that needs problems solved with the help of an OD expert.

2. Consulation with a Behavioral Scientist

OD consultant and client assess each other. Sharing values helps to establish a collaborative atmosphere.

3. Data Gathering and Preliminary Diagnosis

Completed by the OD practitioner, often in conjunction with organization members.

Involves gathering appropriate information and analyzing it to determine the underlying causes of organizational problems.

4. Feedback to the Client

Diagnostic data are fed back to the client, usually in a group or work-team meeting.

Feedback helps clients determine the strengths and weaknesses of the organization or unit under study.

5. Joint Diagnosis

Members discuss the feedback and explore with the OD practitioner whether they want to work on identified problems.

A close relationship exists here. Similar to the "doctor-patient model."

6. Join Action Planning

OD practitioner and client jointly agree futher actions to be taken. This is the beginning of the moving process.

At this stage, the action to be taken depends on the org. culture, technology, and environment of the organization, diagnosis of the problem, and the time and expense of the intervention.

7. Action

Involves the actual change from one organizational state to the next. May include installing new methods and procedures, reorganizing structures and work designs, and reinforcing bew behaviors.

8. Data Gathering on Action

Because this is a cyclical process, data must be gathered after the action has been taken to measure and determine the effects of the action and to feed the results back to the organization.

Back to Feedback to Client
What are some of the trends in the application of the action research model?
1. The movement from smaller sub-units of the organizations to total systems and communities. E.g., the larger the organization the political the process is and the more the stakeholders are involved.

2. Applied increasingly in international settings, particularly in developing nations in the southern hemisphere. e.g., action research may be tailed to cultural traditions.
What is participatory action research, action learning, action science, or self-design?
an approach that emphasizes the need for org. members to learn firsthand about planned change if they are to gain the knowledge and skills needed to change the org.
What are the steps in the Positive Model? (5)
1. Initiate the Inquiry

Determines the subject of change. It emphasizes member involvement to identify the organizational issue they have the most energy to address. E.g., members can choose to look for successful male-female collaboration, instances of customer satisfaction, particularly effective work teams, or product development processes that brought new ideas to market especially fast.

2. Inquire into Best Practives

Involves gathering information about the "best of what is" in the org. Members help to develop an interview protocol that collects stories of new ideas that were developed and implemented in the org.

3. Discover Themes

Members examine the stories, to identify a set of themes representing the common dimensions of people's experiences. It is important that all underlying themes are described.

4. Envision a Preferred Future

Members examine the identified themes, challenge the status quo, and describe a compelling future. Member's collectively visualize the organization's future and develop "possibility propositions" - statements that bridge the organization's current best practices with ideal possibilities for future organizing.

5. Design and Deliver Ways to Create the Future

Involves the design and delivery of ways to create the future. It describes the activities and creates the plans necessary to bring about the vision and sustain "what will be." The process of contined by renewing the conversations about the best of what is.
What are the similarities of the planned change models?
The models are: Lewin's Change Model, Action Research Model, and the Positive Model.

1. Change preceded by diagnosis or preparation
2. Apply behavioral science knowledge
3. Stress involvement of organization members
4. Recognize the role of a consultant
What are the differences of the planned change models?
Models: Lewin's Change Model, Action Research Model, and the Positive Model

1. General v. specific activities
2. Centrality of consultant role
3. Problem-solving v. social constructionism
What are the steps in the General Model of Planned Change? (4)
1. Entering and Contracting

Help managers decide whether they want to engage further in a planned change program and to commit resources to such a process.

Entering involves: gathering initial data to understand the problems facing the organization or to determine the positive areas for inquiry.

2. Diagnosing

The client is carefully studied. May focus on undertanding organizational problems, including their cases and consequences, or on collecting stories about the organization's positive attributes.

One of the most important processes in OD.

3. Planning and Implementing Change

Org. members and OD practitioners jointly plan and implement OD interventions. They design interventions to achieve the organization's vision or goals and make action plans to implement them.

Criteria for designing interventions: 1. the organizations readiness for change, 2. its current change capability, 3. its culture and power distributions, 4. the change agent's skills and abilities.

4. Evaluating and Institutionalizing Change
What are the 4 intervnetions in OD?
1. Human process interventions at the individual, group, and total system levels.

2. Interventions that modify an organization's structure and technology

3. Human resource interventions that seek to improve member performance and wellness

4. Strategic interventions that involve managing the organization's relationship to its external environment and the internal structure and process necessary to support a business strategy.
What are the different types of planned change?
1. Magnitude of Change (Incremental and Quantum)

2. Degree of Organization
(Overorganized and Underorganized)

3. Domestic v.s. International Settings
Conceptualize Planned Change
1. Change is not linear
2. Change is not rational
3. The relationship between change and performance is unclear (can make it clear if you set expectations)
What is the Force Field Model?
Driving forces v. restraining forces.

As RF decreases, DF line moves to the right.
Describe the entering process of planned change.
1. Clarifying the Organizational Issue - presenting the problem and symptoms

2. Determining the Relevant Client - working power and authority, multiple clients and multiple contracts.

3. Selecting a Consultant - expertise and experience
What are the elements of an effective proposal?
1. Goals of Proposed Effort - descriptive, clear, and consise goals to be achieved
2. Recommended Action Plan - Description of diagnosis, data analysis process, feedback process, and action-planning process
3. Specification of Responsibilities - What will various leaders, including the OD practitioner, be held accountable for?
4. Strategy for Achieving the Desired State - Provide change strategies, including education/training, political influence, structural interventions, and confrontation of resistance.
5. Fees, terms, and conditions - Outline fees and expenses associated with the project.
What are the elements of an effective contract?
1. Mutual expectations are clear - outcomes and deliverables, publishing cases and results, involvement of stakeholders
2. Time and Resources - access to client, managers, members, access to information
3. Ground Rules - confidentiality
What are the interpersonal issues of entry?
1. Client Issues - exposed and vulnerable, inadequate, fear of losing control
2. OD Practitioner Issues - empathy, worthiness and ompetency, dependency, overidentification, own and client's view of causes of problems, own and client's view of effective implementation, own ideals and actual behavior, mistrust, lack of feedback(critical), misalignment of values and behaviors, and underqualification.
Define diagnosis.
A collaborative process between organizational members and the OD consultant to collect pertinent information, analyze it, and draw conclusions for action planning and intervention.
What are the phases of the Open Systems Model?
The entire model consists of the environment. Inputs (information, energy, and people) move into Transformations (social component, technological component), and then to Outputs (goods, services, and ideas). Feedback then moves from Output back to inputs.

From class: The output of one is the input of another.
What are the properties of systems?
1. Inputs, transformations, and outputs
2. Boundaries - the idea of this helps to distinguish between systems and environments. Closed systems have rigid and impenetrable boundaries, wheras open systems have more permeable boarders. Boundaries are the borders, or limits, of the system.

3. Feedback - information regarding the actual performance or the output results of the system. Feedback can be used to maintain the system in a steady state or to help the organization adapt to changing circumstances.

4. Equifinality - suggests that similar results may be achieved with different initial conditions and in many different ways. Suggests that a manager can use varying degrees of inputs into the org. and can transform them in a variety of ways to obtain satisfactory outputs.

5. Alignment - A system's overall effectiveness is partly determined by the extent to which the different subsystems are aligned with each other. Concerns the relationships between inputs and transformations, between transformations and outputs, and among the subsystems of the transofrmation process. Refers to the characteristic of the relationship between two or more parts.
What is the key to effective diagnosis?
Know what to look for at each organizational level and recognize how the elvels affect each other

From Class: Systems may look linear but you have levels, messy because of people and people bring emotion, everything effects everything else.
Describe the Organization-Level Diagnostic Model.
Inputs (general environment, industry structure) to design components (technology, strategy, HR systems, Management systems, Structure moving through culture, then to Outputs (organization effectiveness). Chap.5
What are the factors in the Organization-Level Model Inputs?
1. General Environment - external forces that can directly or indirectly affect the attainment of organizational objectives.
2. Inustry Structure - external forces (task environment) that can directly affect the organization - customers, suppliers, substitute products, new entrants, and rivalry among competitors.
What are the organizational design components of the organization level model?
1. Strategy - the way an organization uses its resources (human, economic, or technical) to gain and sustain a competitive advantage
2. Structure - how attention and resources are focused on task accomplishment
3. Technology - the way an organization converts inputs into products and services