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42 Cards in this Set

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What are the five bases of individual power?
Legitimate Power, Reward Power, Coercive Power, Referent Power, Expert Power.
How do people obtain power?
Things: Extraordinary, visible, relevant activities.

People: outsiders, subs, peers, superiors.
What are influence tactics?
Assertiveness, Ingratiation, Rationality, Exchange, Upward Appeal, Coalition Forming.
What are the negative images of power seekers?
Neurotics covering up feelings of inferiority; Compensating for childhood deprivation; Substituting power for lack of affection.
McClelland argues that the most effective managers...
have high n Pow; use power to acheive organizational goals; adopt a participative coaching leadership style; are unconcerned with how much others like them.
What are the conditions under which subunits exert power?
Scarcity of resources, Uncertainty, Centrality (inflence work of other subunits, crucial impact on key product, immediacy), Substitutability.
What are some characteristics of Machiavellianism?
Acting in self-interest, cool and calculating, high self-esteem and confidence, alliance forming.
What are some forms of defensiveness -- reactive politics?
Stalling, Overconforming, Buck passing, Buffing, Scapegoating.
What are the common themes of ethical behaviour?
Honest communication, fair treatment, special consideration, fair competition, responsibility to organization, corporate social responsibility, respect for the law.
What are some causes of unethical behaviour?
Gain, Role Conflict, Competition, Personality, Org. and industry culture.
How can organizations effectively handle allegations of sexual harassment?
Examine characteristics of deaf ear syndrome; Mgt support and education; Vigilance; Immediate response; Policy; Reporting: filing compaints, investigating, privacy.
What are some ways to employ ethical guidelines?
Identify stakeholders; Cost & Benefit of decision alternatives; Moral expectations; Consider ethical dilemmas; Discuss; Act.
What are the steps in the communication process model?
Sender->Receiver: Thinking, Encoding, Transmitting, Perceiving, Decoding, Understanding.
What are some barriers to effective Manager-Employee communication?
Differences in personality and perception, Conflicting role demands, The Mum Effect.
What are the basic principles for effective communication?
Time; Acceptance; Do not confuse person with problem; Say what you feel; Lisen actively; Give timely specific feedback.
What are some ways to facilitate cross-cultural communication?
Assume difference until you know otherwise; Recognize differences within cultures; Watch your language and theirs.
What are some organizational approaches to improving communication?
360 degree feedback; Employee surveys and survey feedback; Suggestion systems; Telephone hotlines, TV networks, Intranets; Management training.
What are the pros and cons of functional, product, and matrix departmentation?
F: efficiency, enhanced communication, career & training opportunities, ease of evaluation; differentiation, poor coordination b/w departments. Best with SME.

P: better coordination, flexibility, eval as profit centre, better service; P.D. may suffer, less economies of scale.

M: flexible, balanced, better communication; role conflict, stress.
What are the 5 basic methods for coordinating divided labour?
Direct supervision; Standardization of Work Processes, Outputs, or Skills; Mutual Adjustment.
What are the advanced methods for coordinating divided labour?
Liason roles, task forces, integrators.
What are some traditional structural characteristics?
Span of control, Flat vs tall, Formalization, Centralization, Complexity.
Contrast network, virtual, and modular organizations. What are the pros and cons?
N: Liasons b/w specialist organizations relying on market mechanisms for coord.
V: Continually evolving independent orgz sharing skills, costs, access to markets. Flexible and adaptable, specialization. N:Isolated from market; V: Can become legalistic, secretive, binding.

Modular: Outsources noncore functions. Keep unit costs low, rapidity, avoid capital costs. Suppliers must be reliable and loyal, lose operational control.
How does organizational size affect the structure of organizations?
As size increases, complexity and formalization increases and centralization decreases.
What are the symptoms of structural problems?
Bad job design, Right hand doesnt know what left is doing, Conflict b/w departments, Slow response times, Decisions made with incomplete info, Proliferation of committees.
What are the main components of the external environment?
Economy, Customer Preferences, Suppliers, Competitors, Social/Political, Technology. (+ Uncertainy + Resource Dependence)
What is the path from the organizational environment to organizational effectiveness?
Objective Org. Env. (Uncertainty & Resources) + Managerial Experience and Personality --> Perceived Org. Env. (Perceived Uncertainty & Resources) --> Strategy Formulation --> Strategy Implementation --> Organizational Effectiveness
What are different methods of Strategy Implementation?
Structure, Vertical Integration, M&A, Director Interlocks, Establishing Legitimacy, Technology.
How is organizational structure used as a strategic response to uncertainty?
Uncertainty leads to differentiation which requires a more organic structure, decentralization, and mutual adjustment. Certain environments use more mechanistic structures with direct supervision, strict functional lines and high centralization.
What is Perrow's theory of the basic dimensions of technology?
Technological routineness is a function of exceptions and problems. Craft technology has few exceptions but difficult problems. Routine technology has few easy problems. Nonroutine technology is many difficult problems, and Engineering technology has many easy problems. Order: Routine, Eng, Craft, Nonroutine.
What is Thompson's theory of the dimensions of technology?
Thompson's interdependence is the extent to which subunits depend on eachother. Mediating tech operates under pooled interdependece where dependent on pooled resources. Long-linked techs op under sequential intd where dependence on preceding generated resources. Intensive tech op under reciprocal intd where interplay and mutual feedback.
How does technology affect organizational structure according to Perrow, Thompson, and Woodward?
Perrow: Routine tech under mehanistic formal central, nonroutine under organic.
Thompson: Tech interdependence needs coord and integration. Mech-->Organic
Woodward: Unit-Mass-Process Less intervention, more automation. Organic -> Mechanistic -> Organic
What are the general implications of advanced manufacturing technology and the impact on structure and job design?
General: Automate routine tasks, increased task interdependence, uncertain env. Structure: Flatter, organic, to cap on flexibility. Job design: Replace with new skills, job enrichment, training, self-managed teams.
What are the implications of advanced office technology?
General: Labour saving, responsiveness, improved decision making. Structure: Flatter, larger spans, variable centralization. Job Design: Deskilling clerical, can upgrade skils depending, can provoke strain and stress from monitoring.
What can organizations change?
Goals and strategies, Technology, Job design, Structure, Processes, Culture.
What are the four key dimensions of a learning organization?
Vision/support, Culture, Learning systems, Knowledge management.
What is the change process?
Unfreezing (recognition current affairs unsatisfactory), Change (move to satisfactory state), Refreezing (new behaviours, attitudes, structure becomes enduring part of organization).
What are the main issues of the change process?
Diagnosis- collect information about unique specific needs.
Resistance- defence mechanisms resist diagnosis or plan.
Evaluation & Institution alization- Consider reactions, learning, behaviour, outcomes.
What are the causes of change resistance?
Politics and self-interest, Tolerance for change, Misunderstanding, Lack of trust, Differing assessments of situation, Resistant culture. [Change is unnecessary or unobtainable]
How can resistance to change be dealt with?
Special roles; Supportive, patient supervision; Good communication; Involvement; Transformational Leaders.
What are some additional organizational development strategies?
Team building- Increase effectiveness by improving interpersonal, goal & role clarity.
Survey Feeback-
TQM- customer focus, continuous improvement, teamwork.
Reengineering- redesign of organizational processes.
What contributes to the generation and implementation of innovative ideas?
Individual creativity, idea champions, communication, resources and rewards.
What influences the diffusion of innovative ideas?
Relative advantage; Compatibility; Complexity; Trialability; Observability.