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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe the typical stages of group development.
Forming - orientation, testing the waters, purpose.

Storming - conflict, confrontation, sorting our roles and responsibilities.

Norming - resolve issues, social consensus, compromise.

Performing - task accomplishment.

Describe the punctuated equilibrium model.
Connie Gersick.

Phase 1 - Gather information, little performance.

Midpoint - Halfway before deadline. Must show progress, need to move forward, seek outside advice.

Phase 2 - Decisions played out, burst of activity, concern for outsider opinion.
What advice does the punctuated equilibrium model offer for managing teams?
1. Prepare carefully for the first meeting.

2. If people are working, do not look for radical progress during phase one.

3. Manage midpoint transition carefully. SWOT of phase 1.
4. Ensure adequate resources for phase 2.
5. Resist deadline changes.
What structural characteristics affect group development?
Group size, diversity, norms, roles, status, and cohesiveness.
What are the consequences of large group size?
On satisfaction: lower.

On performance: depends on task. (Additive, disjunctive, conjunctive) Process losses.
What are four reward allocation norms?
Equity, equality, reciprocity, social responsibility.
What elements can lead to role ambiguity?
Organizational factors - inherent in role.

Role sender - unclear expectations.

Focal person - not digested.
List the factors that increase group cohesiveness.
Threat and competition.
Low diversity.
Small size.
Toughness of initiation.
What are the consequences of group cohesiveness?
More participation in group activities.
More conformity.
More success.
More productivity when organizational norm accepted and task requires interdependence.
What are some ways to counteract social loafing?
Make individual performance more visible.
Make sure that the work is interesting.
Increase feelings of indespensibility.
Increase performance feedback.
How can self-managed work teams succeed?
Tasks should be complex and challenging, requiring high interdependence.

Stable composition, small size, high level of expertise, balanced diversity.

Support: training (tech, social, lang, biz), rewards, management.
What are the principles for effective cross-functional teams?
Composition, superordinate goals, proximity, autonomy, rules and procedures, and leaderships.
What are the advantages, challenges, and lessons of virtual teams?
Advantages: continuous operations, reduced travel time and cost, larger talent pool.

Challenges: miscommunication, trust, isolation, high costs, management.

Lessons: recruitment, training, personalization, goals and ground rules.
Contrast effect dependence with information dependence.
Effect dependence is the reliance on others for their capacity to provide rewards and punishment. Information dependence is the reliance on others for information about how to think, feel, and act.
List the three motives for social conformity.
Compliance - desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment.

Identification - perception that those who promote the norm are attractive.

Internalization - true acceptance.
Describe the socialization process.
Socialization methods --> Learning --> PJ Fit, PO Fit --> Newcomer adjustment
What are the three stages of socialization?
Anticipatory socialization (pre-entry), encounter, and role management.
List some socialization methods.
Realistic job previews, employee orientation programs, socialization tactics, mentoring.
What is the psychological contract?
Beliefs helps by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and promises between them and their organization.
What does research say about realistic job previews?
They are effictive in reducing expectations and turnover, and improving job performance.
What are socialization tactics and the six bipolar continuums?
The manner in which organizations structure the early work experience.

Collective vs. Individual
Formal vs. Informal
Sequential vs. Random
Fixed vs. Variable
Serial vs. Disjunctive
Investiture vs. Divestiture
What are some career functions and psychosocial functions of mentoring?
Sponsorship, Exposure and visibility, Coaching and feedback, Developmental assignments.

Role modelling, acceptance and confirmation, counselling.
What are some proactive socialization techniques?
Feedback seeking, information seeking, observation, relationship building, behavioural self-management.
What are the characteristics of a strong culture?
Coordination, Conflict resolution, Financial success.
What are the liabilities of a strong culture?
Resistance to change, culture clash, pathology.
What contributes to organizational culture? What is the 7 step socialization process describe by Pascale?
The founders and socialization.

Step 1- Selecting employees
Step 2- Debasement and hazing
Step 3- Training "in the trenches"
Step 4- Reward and promotion
Step 5- Exposure to Core Culture
Step 6- Organizational Folklore
Step 7- Role models
What causes organizational conflict?
Group identification and intergroup bias;


Differences in Power, Status, and Culture;


Scare resources.
What are the consequences of conflict?
- Winning becomes more important than problem solving.

- Information is concealed or distorted.

- Each side becomes more cohesive.

- Interparty contact is discouraged.

- Stereotyping.

- Aggresive conflictors emerge as leaders.
How can conflict be managed?
Avoiding- low assertiveness and low cooperation. Good for: trivial issue, info scarce, opponent powerful.

Accomodating- low assertiveness, high cooperation. Good for: if wrong, if issue more important to other party, want to build good will.

Competing- high asertiveness, low cooperation. Good for: have a lot of power, sure of the facts.

Compromise- Good for: if other strategies fail.

Collaborating- high assertives, high cooperation. Good for: problem solving, not intense, lots of info, enhances productivity.
Explain distributive negotiation tactics.
Threats and promises; Firmness vs Concessions; Persuasion.
What are integrative negotiation tactics?
Copious information exchange, framing differences as opportunities, cutting costs, increasing resources, introducing subordinate goals.
How does personality affect stress?
Locus of control, Type A Behaviour, Negative affectivity.
Name two executive and managerial stressors.
Role overload and heavy responsibility.
Name two operative-level stressors.
Poor physical working conditions, poor job design.

Job demands-job control: jobs promote high stress when they make high demands while offering little control.
Describe the burnout process.
Emotional exhaustion --> Depersonalization --> Low Personal Accomplishment
List some general stressors affecting occupants of all roles.
Interpersonal conflict; Work-family conflict; Job insecurity and change; Role ambiguity; Sexual harassment.
What are the plausible behavioural, psychological, and physiological responses to organizational stress?
Behavioural: problem solving (terminate the stressor), withdrawal (avoid the stressor), substance abuse.

Psychological: defense mechanisms (anxiety reduction) such as rationalization, projection, displacement, reaction formation and compensation.

Physiological: health hazards.
How can you reduce or cope with stress?
Job redesign, Social support, Friendly HR policies, Stress management programs, Work-life balance programs.