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119 Cards in this Set

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Group
2 or more individuals interacting and interdependent who have come together to achieve objectives
Stages of Group Development
Forming
Storming
Norming
Performing
Adjourning
Punctuated Equilibrium
no work is really done untill last half of project
External Conditions imposed on a group
Formal rules and regulations
Group member resources
what they can actually bring the to group
Cohesiveness
the degree to which group memebers are attracted to eachother and are motivated to stay in the group
Ex. If high cohesiveness, then low productivity norms, its low productivity
Social facilitation effect
The mere presence of someone else in the room, effects productivity
Group with weak leader
high levels of conflict and low productivity
Group shift
Change in decision risk between the groups decision and the individual descretion that member within the group would make

Individuals are moderatly risky but as a group they tend to take more risks and listen to others opinions to justify
Types of teams
Self managed
Appoint group leader
Self Ehicacy
Belief in yourself and always increase it and your teams
Social Loathing
Tendency for individuals to expend less effortwhen working collectively
7-9 members perform better overall then larger or smaller teams
Cohorts
hold a common attribute
Small groups
Complete tasks faster, more effective use of facts
Large groups
Solve problems better, better diverse input
Groupthink
Phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative course of action
Quality
Involvement or empowerment, get employees involved in process
Diversity
Advantages are creativity and flexibility
Mature vs. older groups and teams
Devient Workplace Behavior
antisocial actions by organizational members that intentionally violate norms and result in negative consequence for organization
4 examples of devient workplace behavior
Production- leaving early, wasting recourses
Property- sabatoge lying about hours
Political- showing favoritism
Personal aggression- sexual harrassment
Polarization (synergy)
2 or more substances that result in or effect differently from individual summation
Social facilitation affect
tendency for performance to improve or decline in response to the presence of others
Zimbardo
Stanford University conducted hiring 2 dozen emotionally stable, physically healthy, law abiding studends, who scored normal average on extensive personality tests. Each student was randomly assigned the role of guard or prisoner.
Communication
the transfer and understanding of meaning
Transfer
means the message was recieved in a form that can be interpereted by the reciever
Understanding message
no the same as the reciever agreeing with it
Directions of Communication
Upward, Downward, Lateral
Examples of employee communication
Suggestion boxes, employee attitude surveys
Channels (formal)
Formal, established by the organization and transmit messages that are related to the professional activities of members
Channels (informal)
transmits personal or social messages in the organization, these informal channels are spontaneous and emerge as a response to individual choices
Chain
the most accurate way to commmunate for employees
Rumors
what type of situation, it could be jealosy, ambiguity, uncertainty
Organizational Communication
all of the patterns, network, and systems of communications within an organization
4 Functions of communication
Control
Motivation
Information
Emotional Expression
Men Vs. Women communication
Men are more direct then women
High context Cultures
Cultures that rely heavily on nonverble and stable situational cues to communication
Low context cultures
cultures that rely heavily on workds to convey meaning (U.S.A)
Managers
Appointed and have formal authority an can only influence to that authority
Leaders
Can influence others to achieve goals have managerial authority
Trait theory
leaders are born, not made
Bahavioral theory
leadership can be taught
Contingency or situtaional theory
leadership effectiveness depends on education
Initiating Structure
(Ohio state)
Extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of sub-ordinates in search for goal attainment
Consideration
(Ohio state)
Extent to which a leader is likely to have a job relationaship characterized by mutual trust, respect and regard for their feelings
Employee oriented leader
(Michigan)
emphasizing interpersonal relation; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among others
Production oriented
(Michigan)
emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job
Contigency theories
(Fielder)
leaders style is fixed
cognitive resource theory
hersey and blanchards situational leadership money
Path goal theory
others theory
Fiedler
LPC least preferred coworker
proposes effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leaders style of interacting w/ followers and to the degree to which the situation allows leaders to control and influence
Assumptions of LPC
-certain leaderhip style should be most effective in different types of situations
-leaders dont readily change syles
-leader member relatinship how much do you respect and trust you leader
-task structure - how routine are the duties
-position power- formal structure, where is the employee on that
Cognitive Resource theory
-adds cognitive resources (traits) to fiedlers model
-experience helps in stressful situtations
-intelligence contributes only in stress-free conditions, using normal problem solving behaviors
Hersey and Blanchard
-considers leaders behaviors (task and relationship)
-assumes leaders can change their behaviors
-considers followers as the situation
-follower task maturity (ability and experience)
-follower phycological maturity (willingness to take responsibility)
Situational leadership theory
contingency theory that focuses on followers readiness; the more ready the followers the more willing and able the less need for leader support and supervision
Path Goal theory
-leader must help followers attaining goals and reduce road blocks to success
-leaders must change behaviors to fit the situation (environmental contingencies and subordinate contingencies)
Leader Role path - goal theory
Uncertainty reduction
-task activities- increase task valence
-barriers- remove barriers
equals results which equals rewards and increase reward valence
LMX leader member exchange theory
-leaders select certain followers to be in favorites based on competence and compatibility and similarity to leader
-exchanges with these "in" followers will be higher quality than with those who are not
this resuls in less turnover
Leadership participation model
a leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determining the form and amount of participative devision making in different situations
Leadership Contingencies
-decision significance
-importance of commitment
-leader experience
-likelihood of commitment
-group support
-group expertice
-team competence
Transactional Leader
leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by charifying rule and task requirements
-give reward in exchange for good work
Manage by exeption
Active and Passive
Transformational Leader
- the most effective; leaders who provide the 4 I's such as:
-individualized consideration
-inspirational motivation
-idealized influence
-intellectual stimulation
Idealized influence
provides vision and sense of mission, intalls pride and gains respect
Inspirational motivation
communicates high expectations uses symbols
Intellectual stimulation
Promotes intelligence, rationality, careful problem solving
Individualized consideration
gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches and advises
Charasmatic Leadership theory
-leaders skipping down hall
-followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors
-have a vision
-willing to take personal risks to achieve vision
-sensitive to follower needs
-exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary
-good for new businesses
Authentic leaders and ethical behaviors
-they know who they are, what they believe in and value, they act on those values openly
-followers see them as ethical
Trust: the foundation of leadership
a positive expectation that another wil not -through words, actions, or descisions - act opportunistically
Challenges to leader construct
-attribution theory of leadership
-the idea that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals
Formalized Goals
If the group is highly cohesive
Implicit theory
idea that attributions of leadership might appear to do something because of something else
Power
capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so B acts in accordance with A
Referent Power
look to someone and what to be with like them
Expert power
No exact position
Power Tactics
ways in which individuals translate power basis into specific actions
Dependent
B's relationship to A's when A posseses something B requires
-Importance of the recourse to the organization scarcity of the resource
3 bases for influence
Phycohogical contrast
legitimate authority
power
Legitmate
power you have b/c of a position
Coercive
Power leader has to punish or control
reward
power to give positive benefits or rewards
Expert
Power from expertise
More power =
more assertiveness
Political Behavior
perception of politics, activites that are not required as part of ones formal role in th eorganization, but that influence or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages or disadvantages within the organization
Impression management
process by which individuals attemp to control the impression others form of them
Internal Locust of control
Im the captain and I know it
Coalitions
clusters of individuals who temporarily come together to achieve a specific purpose
Responses to influence
-compliance
-resistance
-minimal compliance
-sabotage
-developing a counter force
-leaving the organizaion
Legitimate political behavior
normal everyday behavior
Conflict
process that begins when one partly percieves that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about
Traditional conflict
all conflict is bad and must be avoided
Causes
poor communication
lack of openness
failure to respond to employee needs
Human relations belief of conflict
conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group
Interactionist view of conflict
belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that is is absolutely necessary for a group to person effectively
Functionalist conflict
conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance
Dysfunctional conflict
conflict that hinders group performance
The conflict process
Stage 1 - potential opposition or incompatibility: communication and structure
Stage 2 - cognition and personalization: perceived conflict and felt conflict
Stage 3 - intentions: competing, collaborating, compromising, avoiding, accomodating
Stage 4 - Behavior: party's behavior, others reaction
Stage 5 - Outcomes: increased group performance and decreased group performance
Percieved conflict
awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise
Felt conflict
emotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, tenseness, frustration, hostility
Functional Outcomes from conflict
-increased group performance
-improved quality of decisions
-stimulation of creativity and innovation
-encouragement of interest and curiosity
-provision of a medium for problem solving
-creation of an environment for self evaluation and change
Disfunctional Outcomes from conflict
-develpment of discontent
-reduced group affectiveness
-retarded communication
-reduced group cohesiveness
-infighting among group members overcomes group goals
Creating Conflict
reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders
BATNA
the Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement; lowest aceptable value to individual for negotiated agreement
Plan B
Integrative Bargaining
can have a win win settlement
Negotiation process
-preparation and planning
-definition of ground rules
-clarification and justification
-bargaining and problem solving
-closure and implementation
Decision making
choices made from among alternatives developed from data percieved
Programmed desicion
recurring issue
Nonprogrammed decision
unique problem
Steps in decision model
define problem
identify decision criteria
Implementation
a descision by itself changes nothing, it must be implemented
Decision making conditions
uncertainty
certainty
risk
Escalation of committment
increasing or continuing a committment to previous description despite mouting evidence that the decision may be been wrong
continuing to put more money into a failing project
Ethical descision making
utilitarism
rights
justice
utilitarism
greatest good for greatest number
Rights
repeating basic rights
Justice
enforcing rules fairly and not partially
Creativity in decision making
combining new ideas and unique ways or unusual
Innovation
turing the ideas into useful products, services, or methods
Role of intention
making decision on the basis of experience, feelings and accumulated judgement
Bonded rationality
individuals make decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without campuring all their complexity
Myth of Rationality
good goal but not reality organizations are not emotion free